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Gut health and exercise performance

Gut health and exercise performance

Ans former exhibited a higher Power sports nutrition advice of the health-promoting bacterial species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Exercisf hominisand Akkermansia exetcise Gut health and exercise performance Further research is however needed in this field. Some of the first clues can be found in studies of animals. Schrezenmeir J, de Vrese M. But just because snacking has some health benefits doesn't mean you should overdo it with candy and popcorn anytime you're watching TV.

Gut health and exercise performance -

In , a study was published in Nature Medicine which looked at a performance-enhancing microbe that could assist elite athletes due to its ability to metabolise lactate. The bacteria was Veillonella, and the study showed that 30 people out of the 3, analysed had this species, which was around one per cent 7.

Those studied were marathon runners tested after running a marathon, with an increase in Veillonella relative abundance observed from stool samples. The study then isolated a strain of Veillonella atypica from the samples and injected them into mice.

The mice injected with the bacteria were able to run for longer on the treadmill than those without 7. Essentially, the study found that the genes involved in metabolising lactate to propionate another short chain fatty acid was at a higher abundance following exercise 7.

There have been other studies linking the gut microbiome to lung capacity 8 , which also found that regular physical exercise provided many health benefits as well as improving quality of life. This is still a growing field of research, yet these key findings provide confidence that there is a lot of potential in helping athletes to use their gut to improve overall health and performance.

The right foods containing the prebiotics mentioned, can make a difference to health, keeping the gut microbiome fit, strong and able to assist in overall health and athletic performance. By eating a wide variety of prebiotics for your gut microbiome, the different species that play various roles are kept functioning at optimal levels.

This microbiome test is not intended to be used to diagnose or treat medical conditions. A full disclaimer is available here. Shanahan F. Probiotics in perspective. Gastroenterology, —12 Mailing, L. et al. Exercise and the gut microbiome: a review of the evidence, potential mechanisms, and implications for human health.

Exercise and Sport Science Reviews, 47 2 Doi: doi: Clarke, E. Murphy, O. O'Sullivan, A. Lucey, M. Humphreys, A. Hogan, P. Hayes, M. O'Reilly, I. Jeffery, R. Wood-Martin, D. Kerins, E. Quigley, R. Ross, P. O'Toole, M. Molloy, E. Falvey, F. Shanahan, P. Exercise and associated dietary extremes impact on gut microbial diversity.

Gut, Gary D. Wu and James D. Analysis of the Human Gut Microbiome and Association with Disease. Clin Gastroenterol Hepatol, 11 7 Jul.. Baxter, N. Dynamics of Human Gut Microbiota and Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Response to Dietary Interventions with Three Fermentable Fibers.

mBio, 10 1 e Jan Doi: DOI: Gibson, Glenn R. Expert consensus document: The International Scientific Association for Probiotics and Prebiotics ISAPP consensus statement on the definition and scope of prebiotics.

Jonathan Scheiman, Jacob M. Luber, Theodore A. Chavkin, Tara MacDonald, Angela Tung, Loc-Duyen Pham, Marsha C. Wibowo, Renee C. For a recent review discussing the definition of a healthy microbiome see Shanahan et al.

Transepithelial or transcellular permeability consists of the specific transport of solutes, thanks to specialized transporters, across epithelial cells. Paracellular permeability depends on transport through the spaces that exist between epithelial cells.

It is mediated by the intestinal epithelium and regulated by intercellular tight junctions. This is the main route of the passive flow of water and solutes across the intestinal epithelium.

Normally, permeability allows the maintenance of a balance between nutrients passing through the gut while keeping potentially harmful substances, such as antigens, from migrating to other body parts or fluid bodies A disruption in gut mucus thickness 35 , an imbalance in the gut microbiota composition or a decrease in gastrointestinal blood flow 34 , caused by intense exercise, can lead to impairments in these fluxes.

Therefore, harmful substances such as endotoxins from the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacterial strains, namely, lipopolysaccharides LPS , can then pass through the barrier Often, the LPS blood concentration increases together with inflammatory cytokines. Hence, chronic inflammatory responses can be established in the body with major consequences on host health.

Moreover, alterations in gut microbiota have been linked to functional and inflammatory disorders It is key to understand their strengths and limits to understand the data they provide and how to interpret them.

In an increasing number of studies, different methods are being combined to obtain a better picture of the physiological impact of the microbiota, instead of only inferring functions from the bacterial composition.

Table 1. Analytical methods to study the microbiome [adapted from Lepage et al. Non-targeted metabolomics approaches using nuclear magnetic resonance NMR have been performed on gut samples and body fluids from humans and animals.

In endurance sports, both an acute bout of exercise and a long training period can have an effect on microbiota and health. Acute bouts of exercise can be separated into moderate and intense exercise. This review will include data on a wide range of participants: from overweight or diabetic subjects to elite athletes.

This wide range of participants will make it possible to compare the different responses observed and to discuss the presence or absence of a continuum between all these populations Figure 1 Figure 1.

Beneficial effects of exercise and gut microbiota modifications in inactive subjects. Exercise induces beneficial molecular adaptations allowing the enhancement of cardiorespiratory fitness. Bacterial diversity increases, including SCFA- producing species.

Conversely, pathobionts such as E. coli or E. faecalis , potentially disease-causing species which, under normal circumstances, are found as a non-harming symbiont, decrease. Longitudinal studies monitoring exercise intensity and modality, diet, subjects' characteristics and gut microbiota are still lacking.

Modified from Aya et al. Some of these beneficial effects of moderate exercise on the host might be mediated by decreased intestinal permeability 41 , which prevents pathogens from crossing the intestinal barrier and then reduces systemic inflammation.

In parallel, an acute session of exercise at moderate intensity leads to several effects on the microbiota. The effect on the microbiota can be assessed by measuring the diversity or functions.

α-Diversity represents the overall diversity of samples, while β-diversity compares how different bacterial species are distributed among different samples An investigation of the gut microbiota response to a half-marathon in amateur runners showed that the abundance of 7 taxa decreased, while the abundance of 20 bacterial clades increased At the genus level, the top 4 biomarkers increased after the race were Pseudobutyrivibrio, Coprococcus 2, Collinsella , and Mitsuokella while Bacteroides coprophilus was the most decreased bacterial clade.

Regrettably, no dietary questionnaire and no Bristol score that would indicate any gastrointestinal discomfort or bowel transit time difference were performed during this study. When omics methods were used, such as shotgun metagenomics and metabolomics, modest changes in gut microbial gene composition and functions were reported following increased physical activity These data from two studies indicate that exercise can modify the gut microbial composition and production of SCFAs and thus fecal metabolites produced in the gut environment.

Based on the available studies, these sessions, compared to moderate exercise, seem to cause more significant disturbances than moderate exercise on the human body's homeostasis. Elite athletes have been shown to experience high levels of inflammation following an acute bout of exercise 45 , 46 but also after intense exercise as attested by an increase in blood and urine markers of inflammation However, elite rugby players have a lower inflammatory status compared to that of controls [higher interleukin IL and IL-8; lower IL-6, tumor necrosis factor alpha TNF-α , and IL-1β] Endurance athletes are particularly concerned with gastrointestinal symptoms.

A study conducted during a long-distance triathlon concluded that LPS do enter the circulation after ultraendurance exercise. LPS may thus, with muscle damage, be responsible for the increased cytokine response and hence gastrointestinal complaints in these athletes In parallel, a fold increase in IL-6 production was observed immediately after the race.

Even if there was no significant correlation between LPS and IL-6 concentrations, these results indicate that increased intestinal permeability could occur simultaneously with an increased cytokine response and thus could contribute to an increased inflammatory response after exercise.

Similarly, in a multiple-stressor military training environment, regardless of the diet group, both intestinal permeability and inflammation increased Small intestine permeability was also increased during exertional heat stress However, this increase was smaller in the glucose- or energy-matched whey protein hydrolysate groups than in the water-consuming control group.

These changes, although negatively impacting host health, are only temporary and the benefits of such a high exercise load outweigh the temporary drawbacks.

Interestingly, the abundance of less dominant taxa increased at the expense of the dominant Bacteroides. Furthermore, in a study focusing on four well-trained male athletes performing a high-intensity unsupported day, 5,km transoceanic rowing race, changes in microbial diversity, abundance and metabolic capacity measured using 16S rDNA, metagenomics and metaproteomics, respectively were recorded 52 ; microbial diversity increased throughout the ultraendurance event together with an increased abundance of butyrate-producing species as well as others associated with improved metabolic health and insulin sensitivity.

The microbial genes involved in specific amino and fatty acid biosynthesis were also overrepresented. Notably, many of these adaptations in microbial community structure and function persisted at the 3-month follow-up. Microbial diversity thus increased even during intense exercise.

Beyond the effect of exercise load, the fitness status also impacts the microbiome. Regarding the relative importance of these two stimuli, the current consensus is that it is fitness that matters. The microbiome of fit individuals, in good physical shape, has been shown to display increased butyrate production due to the increased abundances of key butyrate-producing bacterial taxa belonging to the Firmicutes phylum Clostridiales, Roseburia, Lachnospiraceae , and Erysipelotrichaceae However, none of the fitness, nutritional intake, or anthropometric variables correlated with the broad Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio.

In a 6-week intervention of endurance exercise in lean adults, exercise induced alterations in the gut microbiota composition and increased fecal concentrations of SCFAs in participants. Cardiorespiratory fitness seems to be related to the relative composition of the gut microbiota in humans.

When healthy elderly women were allocated to two groups receiving exercise interventions, either trunk muscle training or aerobic exercise training including brisk walking 55 , the relative abundance of intestinal Bacteroides significantly increased in the aerobic exercise training group only.

Interestingly, after stopping of exercise training, exercise-induced changes in the microbiota were largely reversed The former exhibited a higher abundance of the health-promoting bacterial species Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, Roseburia hominis , and Akkermansia muciniphila In another 6-week endurance exercise study without dietary changes, metagenomic analysis 16S rRNA gene sequencing and Illumina metagenomic analyses revealed taxonomic shifts, including an increase in Akkermansia and a decrease in Proteobacteria Importantly, these changes were independent of age, weight, and fat percentage as well as energy and fiber intake.

Similarly in male subjects with insulin resistance, both sprint intervals and moderate-intensity continuous trainings reduced systematic and intestinal inflammatory markers and increased Bacteroidetes phylum proportions The links between adaptations to endurance exercise and the gut microbiota are summarized in Figure 2.

These conclusions need to be confirmed by longitudinal studies, but very few are currently available. One of them follows two initially unfit volunteers during 6 months while undertaking progressive exercise training During this training period, fitness and body composition improved.

In parallel, α-diversity increased as well as the concentration of some physiologically-relevant metabolites. Figure 2. Ecosystem level adaptation of gut microbiota in athletes. Recent research indicates that unique gut microbiota may be present in elite athletes, and special and unique species can positively impact the host, providing metabolites from the fermentation of dietary fiber.

Ecosystem level syntrophy: gut bacterial species can hydrolyze fibers and subsequently ferment the sugar monomers into SCFA, while other fermentative species depend upon the hydrolytic ones.

Such a syntrophy have been described between Bacteroides and Bifidobacterium strains. Elite athletes can also be used as a paradigm of the limit of the trained human body. After several years of intense training, elite athletes have special features in terms of athletic performance but also in terms of morphology and metabolic adaptations.

A human study among elite rugby players vs. controls provided evidence of a beneficial impact of exercise on gut microbiota diversity: athletes had a higher diversity, representing 22 distinct phyla However, the results indicated that these differences between the elite and control groups were associated with dietary extremes that could represent confounding factors.

In terms of the proportions of different bacterial populations and their inherent metabolic activities, a study conducted on elite rugby players demonstrated that athletes had relative increases in specific pathways e.

These pathways were associated with enhanced muscle turnover and overall health when compared with the control groups. Differences in fecal microbiota between athletes and sedentary controls showed larger differences at the metagenomic and metabolomic levels than at the compositional levels and provided added insight into the diet-exercise-gut microbiota paradigm.

Another study in international level rugby players showed differences in the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome, as well as in microbial and human derived metabolites The use of food frequency questionnaires reinforced the validity of these results.

Focusing on cycling, another study compared professional and amateur athletes At baseline, it was possible to split the gut microbiomes of the 33 cyclists into three taxonomic clusters: one with high Prevotella , one with high Bacteroides or one with a large set of genera including Bacteroides, Prevotella, Eubacterium, Ruminococcus , and Akkermansia.

However, based on these taxonomic clusters, it was not possible to distinguish between professional or amateur cyclists. Methanobrevibacter smithii transcripts abundance was also increased among a number of professional cyclists compared to amateur cyclists. A study in elite race walkers also reported that at baseline, the microbiota could be separated into the same distinct enterotypes with either a Prevotella- or Bacteroides -dominated enterotype Rodent studies can be used to assess certain conditions that are difficult to test in human studies, particularly without use of overly invasive methods.

Living conditions and diet are also easier to control in such studies. Rodent studies can help distinguish the effects of each of these factors distinctly. Rodents are also good models for imitating human physiology.

Indeed, in rodent studies, both the diversity and specific taxa of the gut microbiota have been shown to be impacted by exercise. Nonetheless, some bacteria generally appear to respond to exercise, including increased Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium , and Akkermansia and decreased Proteobacteria.

Finally, butyrate-producing taxa as well as SCFA production have been consistently shown to increase in response to exercise 61 , 73 , while the majority of studies also showed increased α-diversity following exercise.

Interestingly, some studies have investigated the effect of the gut microbiome on performance. The effect of the presence of the microbiome has been addressed by comparing germ-free GF to specific pathogen-free SPF mice and showing a higher exercise capacity in SPF mice Moreover, exercise capacity improved in mice colonized with individual bacterial taxa compared to their GF counterparts.

However, differences were observed between bacteria in the degree of impact This suggests that if the gut microbiome may have a global positive impact on performance, its effect may depend on its composition. Interestingly, regardless of the bacterial species used to monocolonize GF mice, SPF mice always showed the greatest performance in a test of endurance swimming, suggesting that a more diverse microbiome may be necessary to exert beneficial effects.

Recent studies have also shown that gut microbiota may be critical for optimal muscle function. Indeed, depletion of the microbiota using antibiotics led to a reduction in running capacity and in muscle contractile function 75 , Interestingly, similar results were obtained using a low-microbiota accessible carbohydrate diet that lowered SCFA production.

Finally, restoration of the microbiota 75 or infusion of acetate 76 reversed the loss of endurance capacity and muscle contractile function. An interesting aspect of animal studies is the possibility of performing fecal microbiota transplants FMT.

A few studies established that the beneficial health effect of exercise may be mediated through gut microbiome changes. Indeed, high-fat diet-fed mice receiving FMT from exercised donors not only showed markedly reduced food efficacy but also improved metabolic profiles The transmissible beneficial effects of FMT were associated with the bacterial genera Helicobacter and Odoribacter , as well as an overrepresentation of oxidative phosphorylation and glycolysis genes in the metagenome.

Similarly, it has been shown recently that the gut microbiome determines the efficacy of exercise for diabetes prevention. Exercise was first shown to improve glucose homeostasis only in a fraction of pre-diabetic individuals responders.

The microbiome of responders exhibited an enhanced capacity for the biosynthesis of SCFAs and catabolism of branched-chain amino acids. Moreover, the baseline microbiome signature could predict individual exercise responses.

Remarkably, following FMT, gut microbiota from responders conferred the metabolic benefits of exercise to recipient mice Rodent studies have recently produced interesting new results, indicating that each exercise modality causes its own alterations of the gut microbiome First, both voluntary wheel running and forced treadmill running altered many individual bacterial taxa, including Turicibacter spp.

In mice fed a high-fat diet, exercise was proven to increase the Bacteroidetes phylum, while it decreased Firmicutes proportionately to the distance the mice ran The high-fat diet component in this study is an important parameter to consider as it has been shown to cause modifications in mouse gut microbiota at nearly the same magnitude as exercise alone As in animal models, exercise and diet may together impact the composition of the human gut microbiota.

For example, a study investigating the gut microbial response in amateur half-marathon runners observed some changes in 40 fecal metabolites and some shifts in specific gut bacterial populations.

However, the authors concluded that these observed differences might have been the shared outcome of running and diet As reviewed by Mitchell et al.

In particular, the amount of fiber consumed should be taken into account before drawing any conclusions when comparing the results of different studies. Their bulking effect on transit time, stool frequency, and gut health 84 comes from the fact that some fibers are not absorbed in the small intestine and are thus fermented in the large intestine.

Consequently, differences in fiber consumption impact the type and amount of SCFAs produced by the microbiota For example, the gut microbiota of children from Burkina Faso, whose diet contains a large amount of fibers compared to European children, was significantly enriched in Bacteroidetes and depleted in Firmicutes Furthermore, significantly more SCFAs were found in Burkina Faso children's feces compared to in European children's feces.

Species from the Bacteroidetes phylum mainly produce acetate and propionate, whereas butyrate-producing bacteria are found within the Firmicutes phylum The increasing fiber consumption resulted in higher microbiota stability associated with higher microbiota richness.

Table 2. The different types of dietary fiber [modified from 83 ]. Fiber intake is often low in the diet of athletes. Several studies, involving female artistic gymnastics, rhythmic gymnastics and ballet dance athletes 88 , or competitive American adolescent swimmers 89 reported that athletes' fiber consumption was often below the nutritional guidelines of 25 g per day based on a 2,calorie diet Only a few studies reported fiber consumption above the nutritional guidelines, and one of the few examples is female and male Dutch ultramarathon runners Athletes may be reluctant to adopt such dietary habits because of higher satiety sensation or digestion and gastrointestinal discomfort issues In parallel, to avoid gastrointestinal symptoms associated with exercise, some athletes turn to a low FODMAP Fermentable Oligo-, Di-, Mono-saccharides And Polyols diet to limit the presence of highly fermentable carbohydrates in their digestive tract Indeed, undigested carbohydrates may increase the osmotic load in the small intestine and contribute to increased osmotic water translocation, volume, and physiological issues such as loose stool or diarrhea 94 , Particular attention must also be paid when comparing elite athletes with sedentary controls.

Indeed, dietary protein intake differs largely in elite athletes and sedentary controls diets A recent study dealt with the effects of protein supplementation on the gut microbial composition Protein supplementation increased the abundance of the Bacteroidetes phylum and decreased the presence of health-related taxa, including Roseburia, Blautia , and Bifidobacterium longum.

The authors concluded that long-term protein supplementation may have a negative impact on gut microbiota. Likewise, a study comparing fecal microbiota characteristics among healthy sedentary men as controls , bodybuilders, and distance runners found that daily protein intake negatively correlated with diversity in distance runners.

This implies that a high quantity of protein in the diet may negatively impact the gut microbiota. Moreover, there was no difference in microbial diversity, but subject populations differed in terms of their gut microbial composition: Faecalibacterium, Sutterella, Clostridium, Haemophilus , and Eisenbergiella were the highest in bodybuilders, while Bifidobacterium and Parasutterella were the lowest.

Some intestinal beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium adolescentis group, Bifidobacterium longum group, Lactobacillus sakei group, Blautia wexlerae and Eubacterium hallii were the lowest in bodybuilders and the highest in controls.

Thus, bodybuilders demonstrate a decrease in SCFA-producing commensal bacteria compared to controls Historically, probiotics have been used to mitigate intestinal issues linked to antibiotic treatment, travel, or illness Until very recently, the beneficial effects demonstrated after probiotic consumption were immune modulation and strengthening of the gut mucosal barrier.

The mechanisms included 1 modifications of gut microbial composition, 2 dietary protein modifications by the microbiota, 3 modification of bacterial enzyme capacity, 4 physical adherence to the intestinal mucosa that may outcompete a pathogen or inhibit its activation, and 5 influence on gut mucosal permeability , There are also effects through interactions with immune intestinal cells or altering cytokine production, especially in the upper part of the gut, where probiotics may transiently dominate Compared to hundreds of commensal species inhabiting the human gut microbiota, probiotics are limited to specific bacterial strains, mostly within the genera Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium , and Saccharomyces for yeasts, for regulatory reasons.

Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactobacillus casei Shirota have the longest history among known bacterial strains for application. In present-day commercial probiotic products, Lactobacillus spp. are well-represented, followed by Bifidobacterium spp.

There is today a high degree of consensus that the clinical effects of probiotics are strain-dependent, meaning that probiotic properties should be defined not only at the species level but also at the strain level Probiotics have been tested for different potential health effects on athletes.

Figure 3 summarizes the reported effects of probiotic ingestion by athletes or subjects practicing moderate physical exercise. Figure 3. Reported effects of probiotic ingestion by athletes or subjects practicing moderate physical exercise. However, the effects differed between males and females, the latter group being less studied.

Until recently, probiotic supplementation effects on sports performance have seldom been tested. For example, Lactobacillus rhamnosus strain ATCC , when tested in marathon runners, demonstrated no effect on the number of GI symptom episodes, but their duration was shorter in the probiotic group In competitive cyclists, the number and duration of mild gastrointestinal symptoms were ~2-fold higher in the probiotic group Lactobacillus fermentum PCC However, in males, there was a substantial reduction in the severity of gastrointestinal illness as the mean training load increased.

Noticeably, the burden of lower respiratory illness symptoms decreased in males but increased in females. When sprint athletes consumed Bifidobacterium bifidum , their IgA, IgM, lymphocyte and monocyte percentages and CD4 counts were significantly higher than those of the control group Lactobacillus helveticus Lafti ® L10 supplementation for 3 months in a population of elite athletes triathletes, cyclists, and endurance athletes showed, in the probiotic group, a decrease in the main markers of oxidative stress and antioxidative defense, such as malondialdehyde, advanced oxidation protein products and superoxide dismutase In male runners, multistrain probiotic supplementation Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus rhamnosus, Lactobacillus casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus fermentum, Bifidobacterium lactis, Bifidobacterium breve, Bifidobacterium bifidum , and Streptococcus thermophilus significantly increased running time to fatigue.

In addition, probiotic supplementation led to small to moderate reductions in intestinal permeability and gastrointestinal discomfort In 24 recreational runners, probiotic supplementation for 28 days prior to a marathon race [ Lactobacillus acidophilus CUL60 and CUL21 , Bifidobacterium bifidum CUL20 , and Bifidobacterium animalis subs p.

lactis CUL34 ] was associated with a significantly lower incidence and severity of GI symptoms and limited decrease in average speed in the probiotics group compared to the control group However, there were no significant differences in finish times between the groups.

Probiotic supplementation Streptococcus thermophilus FP4 and Bifidobacterium breve BR03 was reported to likely enhance isometric average peak torque production, attenuating performance decrements and muscle tension in the days following a muscle-damaging exercise , where subjects performed 5 sets of 10 maximal eccentric contractions.

In a similar study design, Bacillus coagulans GBI , significantly increased recovery at 24 and 72 h and decreased soreness at 72 h post exercise Probiotic supplementation correlated with a maintained performance and a small increase in creatine phosphokinase.

Finally, Bacillus subtilis consumption during offseason training in female collegiate soccer and volleyball players, in conjunction with post-workout nutrition, had no effect on physical performance However, body fat percentages were significantly lower in the probiotic group.

Altogether, these results show that probiotics may improve oxidative or inflammatory markers but have no proven effect on performance. Nonetheless, potential new generation probiotics, first identified in elite athletes' microbiome undergoing exercise, have recently shown promising results in mouse performance models These bacteria belonging to the Veillonella genus feed on lactic acid and produce propionate, which may increase endurance capacity.

In endurance sports, the effects of exercise on the microbiome depend upon exercise intensity and its duration. Training can also reinforce some of these effects or develop new effects. In return, changes in the gut microbiota diversity and composition can translate into a reduction in inflammation and gastrointestinal symptoms as well as the modification of hundreds of metabolites.

Many of them are beneficial for the organism SCFAs, secondary bile acids, etc. and can allow endurance athletes to conduct huge volumes of training or to improve their sports performance. Probiotics can be used, in addition, to further potentiate these adaptations.

However, research is still needed to identify the best bacterial strains and their methods of administration. In addition, in a number of studies, it is very difficult to distinguish between the effects of exercise and diet on the gut microbiome variations.

They could both act synergistically. The different types of fiber, protein and supplements are usually not documented. However, the genome content of species with highly similar rDNA 16S sequences can differ. So, the correlation between 16S rDNA taxonomy and functions does have limits.

Besides 16S rDNA, other methods should be used to decipher the functions of microorganisms of interest. To overcome these limitations, Table 3 summarizes our main suggestions for future studies.

Table 3. Recommendations for more integrated studies in order to understand the interplay between exercise and gut microbiota in recreational athletes and elites.

Similarly, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics microbiota analyses can help to i explain some of the sports-induced modifications and ii find new key targets to act on. We suggest adding longitudinal sportomics studies to microbiome monitoring through omics methods, together with dietary and well-being questionnaires.

It could lead to microbiome-based solutions for health or performance by helping in the design of new supplements and also probiotics that would not necessarily be a unique strain but rather a consortium of species for a given metabolic outcome.

In addition to new monitoring applications, this strategy could lead to optimized diets through personalized nutrition based on an individual's microbiome make-up and workout intensity. MC wrote the first draft of the manuscript. ML coordinated the work. PG focused on animal models.

AM on clinical context. MC, PG, AM, and ML revised the original manuscript. All authors approved the final manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

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Anc are multiple ways to improve exerciwe sports performance, but Gjt you know that a focus on pertormance health can be incredibly eexrcise We often focus on performajce training but having Ad gut functioning African Mango Fat Loss an optimal Snake venom neutralization treatment plays a large role in Snake venom neutralization treatment. The internal environment of our gut is as important, if not more, than our external environment. At every moment of the day, there are tons of processes that are going on in your gut to maintain normal digestion and overall health. Not only has the health of our internal environment, or microbiome, been associated with physical health but mental health as well. One of the reasons that the health of the microbiome is so important is that it is home to thousands of strains of beneficial bacteria that help break down foods, allowing you to obtain more nutrients from your foods.


How Does Exercise Affect the Gut Microbiome? Gut health and exercise performance study was published today in Natureand reveals the gut-to-brain pathway that explains why some Topical antifungal treatments for skin infections boost exercise performance. In the study, the researchers found that differences in Snake venom neutralization treatment healht within a exercjse Gut health and exercise performance of lab mice were largely attributable to the presence of certain gut exerciss species in the higher-performing animals. The researchers traced this effect to small healht called metabolites that the bacteria produce—metabolites that stimulate sensory nerves in the gut to enhance activity in a motivation-controlling brain region during exercise. Thaiss and colleagues set up the study to search broadly for factors that determine exercise performance. They recorded the genome sequences, gut bacterial species, bloodstream metabolites, and other data for genetically diverse mice. Gut health and exercise performance

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