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Protein for athletic body composition

Protein for athletic body composition

They concluded that the lowest intake compositiln protein synthesis when compared to Non-GMO weight loss pills boody and high Non-GMO weight loss pills Lean Muscle Endurance that while the compostiion protein intake bocy to a neutral protein balance, they recommended one standard deviation above at 1. FrestedtJ. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by the KU Leuven Biomedical Ethics Committee. Significant main effects are shown in bold. Eating, drinking, and cycling. For example, the RDA of young men assessed using the IAAO method was reported to be 1.

Protein for athletic body composition -

It is important to ensure good hydration prior to an event. Consuming approximately ml of fluid in the 2 to 4 hours prior to an event may be a good general strategy to take.

Some people may experience a negative response to eating close to exercise. A meal high in fat, protein or fibre is likely to increase the risk of digestive discomfort.

It is recommended that meals just before exercise should be high in carbohydrates as they do not cause gastrointestinal upset.

Liquid meal supplements may also be appropriate, particularly for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves. For athletes involved in events lasting less than 60 minutes in duration, a mouth rinse with a carbohydrate beverage may be sufficient to help improve performance.

Benefits of this strategy appear to relate to effects on the brain and central nervous system. During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue. Current recommendations suggest 30 to 60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient, and can be in the form of lollies, sports gels, sports drinks, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread.

It is important to start your intake early in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period. It is also important to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices.

For people exercising for more than 4 hours, up to 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour is recommended. Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first one to 2 hours after exercise.

While consuming sufficient total carbohydrate post-exercise is important, the type of carbohydrate source might also be important, particularly if a second training session or event will occur less than 8 hours later.

In these situations, athletes should choose carbohydrate sources with a high GI for example white bread, white rice, white potatoes in the first half hour or so after exercise.

This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes. Since most athletes develop a fluid deficit during exercise, replenishment of fluids post-exercise is also a very important consideration for optimal recovery.

It is recommended that athletes consume 1. Protein is an important part of a training diet and plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair.

Protein needs are generally met and often exceeded by most athletes who consume sufficient energy in their diet. The amount of protein recommended for sporting people is only slightly higher than that recommended for the general public. For athletes interested in increasing lean mass or muscle protein synthesis, consumption of a high-quality protein source such as whey protein or milk containing around 20 to 25 g protein in close proximity to exercise for example, within the period immediately to 2 hours after exercise may be beneficial.

As a general approach to achieving optimal protein intakes, it is suggested to space out protein intake fairly evenly over the course of a day, for instance around 25 to 30 g protein every 3 to 5 hours, including as part of regular meals. There is currently a lack of evidence to show that protein supplements directly improve athletic performance.

Therefore, for most athletes, additional protein supplements are unlikely to improve sport performance. A well-planned diet will meet your vitamin and mineral needs.

Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency. There is no evidence that extra doses of vitamins improve sporting performance. Nutritional supplements can be found in pill, tablet, capsule, powder or liquid form, and cover a broad range of products including:.

Before using supplements, you should consider what else you can do to improve your sporting performance — diet, training and lifestyle changes are all more proven and cost effective ways to improve your performance.

Relatively few supplements that claim performance benefits are supported by sound scientific evidence. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is also potentially dangerous. Supplements should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional.

The ethical use of sports supplements is a personal choice by athletes, and it remains controversial. If taking supplements, you are also at risk of committing an anti-doping rule violation no matter what level of sport you play.

Dehydration can impair athletic performance and, in extreme cases, may lead to collapse and even death. Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is very important. Fluid intake is particularly important for events lasting more than 60 minutes, of high intensity or in warm conditions.

Water is a suitable drink, but sports drinks may be required, especially in endurance events or warm climates.

Sports drinks contain some sodium, which helps absorption. While insufficient hydration is a problem for many athletes, excess hydration may also be potentially dangerous.

In rare cases, athletes might consume excessive amounts of fluids that dilute the blood too much, causing a low blood concentration of sodium.

This condition is called hyponatraemia, which can potentially lead to seizures, collapse, coma or even death if not treated appropriately. Consuming fluids at a level of to ml per hour of exercise might be a suitable starting point to avoid dehydration and hyponatraemia, although intake should ideally be customised to individual athletes, considering variable factors such as climate, sweat rates and tolerance.

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The information and materials contained on this website are not intended to constitute a comprehensive guide concerning all aspects of the therapy, product or treatment described on the website. All users are urged to always seek advice from a registered health care professional for diagnosis and answers to their medical questions and to ascertain whether the particular therapy, service, product or treatment described on the website is suitable in their circumstances.

The State of Victoria and the Department of Health shall not bear any liability for reliance by any user on the materials contained on this website. Skip to main content. Healthy eating. Home Healthy eating. Conclusion: Increased protein intake effectively prevented muscle wasting and maintained exercise capacity during a period of caloric restriction in female recreational athletes.

Furthermore, exogenous ketosis did not affect body composition, but showed its potential in weight management by preserving a drop in exercise capacity and REE and by improving overall stress parameters during a period of caloric restriction.

Since low body weight is an important determinant of success in many sports, athletes try to reduce body weight either to comply with the physical appearance standards, to compete in a lower weight class or to increase physical performance. In order to reduce body weight a negative energy balance is required.

This can be achieved either by cutting energy intake, by increasing energy expenditure, or a combination of both. Since athletes are subjected to high training loads with a concomitant high energy expenditure, the obvious way to lower body weight is via energy intake restriction.

However, sustained hypocaloric diets might come with certain pitfalls as in general they induce not only losses in fat mass but also in lean mass in a ratio of approximately Weinheimer et al. A small fraction of the reduction in lean mass is accounted for by the drop of bone mass, but the majority results from muscle wasting.

It is well established that caloric restriction impairs muscle protein synthesis Pasiakos et al. This negative balance results in muscle wasting which is detrimental to exercise performance, and often also elevates injury risk Fogelholm, A strategy to circumvent this problem is to increase the daily intake of high-quality protein for a review on dietary protein, see Phillips and Van Loon, Indeed, a high-protein diet in young, physically active volunteers effectively prevented muscle atrophy during short-term caloric restriction Mettler et al.

These observations underpin current recommendations with regard to protein intake during weight loss in athletic populations Helms et al. Nonetheless, it is important to note that these recommendations largely result from observations in young males, while well-controlled weight loss studies in females are underrepresented.

It was shown in overweight and obese females that hypocaloric high-protein diets were successful in reducing fat mass while simultaneously preserving lean mass Piatti et al.

However, whether the same effect occurs in already lean female athletes remains to be determined. Some prospective case studies showed promising experiences of female figure competitors who were able to preserve muscle mass during a caloric deficit by increasing protein intake Halliday et al.

However, these athletes also adhered to a strenuous resistance training regimen combined with several performance enhancing supplements, making it difficult to define the effects of increased protein intake per se. Furthermore, prospective case studies do not allow to determine any causal relationships, and therefore high quality intervention trials in female athletes are required.

Ketone bodies i. β-hydroxybutyrate, βHB , acetoacetate AcAc and acetone may provide an alternative strategy to counteract muscle wasting during caloric restriction. Ketone bodies are lipid-derived compounds which are produced in the liver in response to low blood glucose and insulin levels Evans et al.

They were shown to exert anti-catabolic actions under stress conditions. More specifically, ketone salt infusion decreased urinary nitrogen excretion during prolonged starvation in obese individuals Sherwin et al. Also the anabolic potential of ketone bodies has been demonstrated, as ketone salt infusion suppressed leucine oxidation and stimulated muscle protein synthesis in healthy volunteers Nair et al.

Additionally, oral ingestion of the ketone ester R hydroxybutyl R hydroxybutyrate post-exercise in young healthy volunteers enhanced stimulation of the mTORC1 axis as shown by increased phosphorylation of S6K1 and 4E-BP1 Vandoorne et al.

Overall, the anticatabolic and anabolic potential of ketone bodies might make them as effective as an increased protein intake to counteract muscle loss during a period of caloric restriction. To this background, we performed a double-blind, placebo-controlled study to compare the effects of exogenous ketosis with those of an increased daily protein intake i.

the prevailing strategy to obtain weight loss in athletic populations on body composition and exercise capacity during rapid weight loss. We hypothesized that exogenous ketosis can facilitate maintenance of muscle mass, as well as promote exercise capacity during rapid weight loss in already lean female recreational athletes.

We selected this specific study population to better validate the existing dietary recommendations in female recreational athletes. Candidate subjects were excluded for participation if they had an obsessive pursuit of thinness confirmed by the Eating Disorder Inventory 3 Clausen et al.

Health status was evaluated by a medical questionnaire and physical examination prior to enrollment in the study.

One subject dropped out for reasons that were unrelated to the study protocol. The study was approved by the KU Leuven Biomedical Ethics Committee S Subjects gave written consent to participate after being fully informed of all procedures and potential risks associated with the study.

A schematic overview of the double-blinded placebo-controlled study design is presented in Figure 1. Subjects were instructed to maintain their habitual level of physical activity, as well as their exercise training routine throughout the full study period.

The protocol started with a baseline registration week during which the subjects recorded their habitual diet and physical activities. To improve the accuracy of the dietary analysis, the subjects received a kitchen scale to weigh all consumed foods and energy-containing drinks.

Daily physical activity level was monitored using an accelerometer Actigraph, wGT3X, Pensacola, United States together with a training diary see below. After the baseline registration week, the subjects were enrolled in a diet stabilization week. Optimal energy intake was determined as the mean of daily energy intake and energy expenditure.

Daily energy intake was taken from the 7-day food diary filled out during the registration week. Daily energy expenditure was calculated as the sum of resting energy expenditure, which was measured by indirect calorimetry see below , physical activity-induced energy expenditure, which was obtained from the accelerometer data during the registration week, and estimated diet-induced thermogenesis.

Following the stabilization period, a 4-week caloric restriction period was started. Subjects in PLA and KE received.

Protein intake was distributed over the different meals and snacks during the day. Three times daily, i. immediately before breakfast, lunch, and dinner, the subjects ingested a ketone ester or an isocaloric placebo see below. Supplement intake was blinded to both the subjects and the investigators.

At the start pretest and at the end posttest of the caloric restriction period, the subjects participated in an experimental session which involved body composition and resting energy expenditure REE measurements, blood sampling, exercise testing, and questionnaires addressing general well-being.

FIGURE 1. Study design and timing of measurements. EI, e nergy intake; MCTs, medium chain triglycerides; PAEE, physical activity-related energy expenditure; βHB, β-hydroxybutyrate; REE, resting energy expenditure.

During the stabilization and the caloric restriction period, the subjects received an individual food plan. All meals, snacks and drinks were provided by the investigators. The subjects were instructed not to consume any foods or drinks other than prescribed by the study protocol, except water or other zero-calorie drinks.

To avoid vitamin or mineral deficiencies, the subjects received a daily supplement at breakfast Omnibionta three Defense, Omnibionta, Overijse, Belgium.

Subjects also completed a food diary to register any deviation from the nutritional plan. Table 1 shows the energy and macronutrient intake of the subjects during the study period, taking into account reported non-compliances. Protein intake on average was. TABLE 1. Macro-nutrient composition of the experimental diets.

Data are mean ± SEM. Macronutrient composition is expressed in g per day. In weeks one to four, total energy intake, i. Subjects in KE received a 20 g ketone ester R hydroxybutyl R -3hydroxybutyrate TdeltaS Ltd, Thame, Oxfordshire, UK three times daily.

We used this orally absorbable ketone ester because it was proven to be safe and well-tolerated in humans Clarke et al. Supplements were taken immediately before breakfast, lunch and dinner.

Subjects in PLA and PROT received an isocaloric placebo drink containing To match the taste and appearance of the placebo drink with the ketone ester, bitter sucrose octaacetate Sigma-Aldrich, Bornem, Belgium was added. Supplement drinks were blinded for both subjects and researchers.

During the stabilization period, the subjects participated in a familiarization session in order to habituate to the exercise testing procedures see below and thereby reduce potential learning effects between the pretest and the posttest.

Subjects were instructed to refrain from any strenuous physical activity for at least 48 h prior to each experimental session. They arrived fasted at the laboratory between 7 and 11 a. Subcutaneous fat mass was also assessed via 12 skinfold measurements biceps, triceps, subscapular, supra-iliac, midaxillary, iliac-crest, abdomen, chin, anterior thigh, posterior thigh, lateral calf and medial calf using a Harpenden skinfold caliper Baty International Ltd, West Sussex, UK.

Subsequently, a fasting blood sample was taken from a cubital vein Venoject, Tokyo, Japan and plasma or serum were separated by centrifugation and stored at °C until analyzed.

Subjects completed a number of questionnaires addressing general mood status, perception of satiety, and gastro-intestinal discomfort see below. Ninety min after breakfast, the exercise testing was started. Subjects first performed a series of 3 strength and power tests.

Handgrip strength was measured with the dominant hand using a handgrip dynamometer Jamar, J, Lafayette, United States. Due to a hand injury, one subject in PROT was excluded from this analysis. Explosive strength was evaluated by countermovement jumps CMJ on a force platform SMARTJUMP, Fusion sport, Nottingham, UK.

Maximal isometric force of the knee extensors was measured in the dominant leg at a knee angle of ° on an isokinetic dynamometer Hespel et al.

For each test, five attempts were allowed with 1 min rest and the mean of the three best performances was used for further analyses. Finally, a maximal incremental VO 2 max test on a cycle ergometer was performed Avantronic Cyclus II, Leipzig, Germany.

Initial workload was set at 50 W for 5 min and was increased by another 20 W per min until volitional exhaustion. Respiratory gas exchange was measured continuously Cortex MetaLyzer II, Leipzig, Germany and the highest oxygen uptake measured over a 30 s period was noted as the maximal oxygen uptake rate VO 2 max.

Two minutes after exhaustion, a blood sample 5—10 µL was taken from an earlobe for lactate determination Lactate Pro2, Arkray, Japan. Because of technical issues VO 2 max data from one subject in PLA is absent. Four weeks later, the subjects returned to the laboratory for the posttest, which was identical to the pretest.

For each subject, the experimental diet and supplementation was maintained till the day before the posttest, and tests were done on the same day of the week and the same time of the day as for the pretests. REE and substrate oxidation were measured during the registration period baseline and at the end of the caloric restriction period day 24 or 25, posttest.

Subjects were instructed to refrain from any intense physical exercise from 24 h prior to the measurement. whereafter they fasted till next morning, yet water was allowed at libitum. Subjects were instructed not to perform any physical activity on the morning of the REE registration.

They arrived in the laboratory between 7 and 9 a. After a toilet visit, 24 h urine collection was started. Subjects then rested on a bed in a dark and quiet room for 1 h. Subsequently, REE and resting carbohydrate and lipid oxidation were measured during two 20 min episodes with a 10 min break in between using a calibrated gas analyzer with a canopy hood Quark RMR Cosmed, Rome, Italy.

Following each 20 min measurement, a post-calorimetric simulation test was performed to correct for potential drifts that emerged in the measured VO 2 and VCO 2.

Three simulations were performed in order to obtain three levels of FeCO 2. Each simulation lasted 2 min, resulting in a total duration of 6 min for the post-calorimetric test. During the simulation, the same ventilation was used as that during the REE measurement.

Finally, measured VO 2 and VCO 2 values were corrected according to the regression line that was established between the measured values and the theoretical values of the simulation.

Physical activity-related energy expenditure PAEE was determined using an accelerometer Actigraph, wGT3X, Pensacola, United States in conjunction with a training diary. Each exercise training activity was registered in a training diary including type of exercise performed, exercise duration, and rate of perceived exertion RPE according to a point Borg scale Borg, Furthermore, the subjects were equipped with the accelerometer during the full registration week pretest measurement and during week three of the caloric restriction period posttest measurement.

The third week, instead of the fourth week of the caloric restriction was chosen because of the exercise limitations imposed in the direct approach of the posttest and REE measurement in week 4. Subjects were instructed to wear the accelerometer on the right hip during days and nights and whenever it was removed, the reason and time window had to be noted in the training diary.

Only days including more than 10 h of daytime registration were included in the analyses. When subjects removed the accelerometer during training, PAEE was calculated from the exercise duration, the MET-value of the sports activity, and the RPE.

The PAEE of non-registered sports activities was added to the daily PAEE estimated by the accelerometer. Perception of satiety was evaluated in the fasted state using a 0—10 Likert visual analogue scale VAS Woods et al.

Gastro-intestinal discomfort was evaluated in the fasted state using a 0—8 Likert scale questionnaire addressing upper and lower abdominal problems, and systemic problems Pfeiffer et al. General mood status was assessed by the Recovery Stress Questionnaire for Athletes RESTQ Kallus and Kellmann, Serum free triiodothyronine T3 , free thyroxine T4 and thyroid-stimulating hormone TSH were measured via electrochemiluminescence using cobas e Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany.

Furthermore, on days 1, 14 and 27 of the caloric restriction period, capillary blood samples for βHB determination GlucoMen Lx plus meter with Lx β-ketone sensor strips, Menarini Diagnostics, Firenze, Italy were taken from an earlobe immediately before and 1 h after each supplement intake before meals.

From the 24 h urine samples collected in the context of the REE determination, total volume was registered and aliquots were stored at °C until analyzed.

Total nitrogen concentration was assayed according to the Dumas method using a continuous-flow elemental analyzer isotope ratio mass spectrometer ANCA, Europa Scientific, Crewe, UK as previously described De Preter et al. Total urinary nitrogen output was used to determine 24 h protein oxidation rate.

Statistical analyses were performed using GraphPad Prism version 8. Differences between the experimental groups at baseline were analyzed using a one way repeated measures analysis of variance ANOVA. Differences between the experimental groups over time were analyzed using a two way repeated measures ANOVA.

In case of a significant group × time interaction, Bonferroni post hoc tests were performed to further specify the differences.

Reported p -values that refer to observed main effects are specified as P time, P group and P interaction , other p -values refer to the post hoc analyses.

All results are expressed as mean ± SEM. Effect sizes were reported as eta squared η 2. Sample size was determined based on earlier studies investigating the effect of a high-protein hypocaloric diet on muscle wasting primary endpoint of this study in normal-weight subjects Mettler et al.

In PLA and PROT, diurnal βHB concentrations did not significantly change compared with the fasted levels before breakfast. βHB levels returned to fasted baseline levels before the next supplement intake 4—6 h later.

In all groups, diurnal βHB levels were similar between day 1, 14 and 27 of the supplementation period. FIGURE 2. Diurnal blood β-hydroxybutyrate.

Data are represented as means white bars: PLA; grey bars: PROT; black bars: KE and individual values circles: PLA; triangles: PROT; squares: KE.

Supplements were ingested daily immediately before breakfast 8 am , lunch 12 pm and dinner 6 pm. βHB mM was measured immediately before and 1h after supplement intake on day 1, 14 and 27 during the supplementation period.

Because diurnal βHB levels were similar between day 1, 14 and 27, only mean values of the 3 days are reported. Body composition Table 2 —For all body composition measurements, pretest values were similar between the experimental groups. Body weight reductions were similar in PLA and KE with an average loss of 3.

The caloric restriction period on average reduced lean mass by. TABLE 2. Effect of increased protein intake and exogenous ketosis on body composition during a hypocaloric diet. Body composition was measured using DXA before pretest and at the end posttest of the caloric restriction period.

Significant main effects are shown in bold. Effect sizes are reported as eta squared η 2. PAEE and TEE values adjusted for lean mass also showed a similar reduction over time in all groups data not shown. FIGURE 3. Effect of increased protein intake and exogenous ketosis on resting energy expenditure during a hypocaloric diet.

Absolute resting energy expenditure A was measured by indirect calorimetry in the fasted state before pretest and at the end posttest of the caloric restriction period.

The hypocaloric diet reduced absolute REE in all groups, but to a lesser extend in KE. When REE values were adjusted for lean mass B , REE was only reduced in PLA and PROT, and was preserved in KE.

TABLE 3. Effect of increased protein intake and exogenous ketosis on physical activity-related energy expenditure, total energy expenditure and substrate oxidation at rest during a hypocaloric diet.

Exercise performance Table 4 —VO 2 max in the pretest was 2. However, because body weight declined during caloric restriction, VO 2 max relative to body weight did not significantly change. Time to exhaustion in the VO 2 max test decreased by 2.

Values were unchanged following the caloric restriction period and were similar between groups at any time see Supplementary Table S1.

TABLE 4. Effect of increased protein intake and exogenous ketosis on performance in the VO 2 max test during a hypocaloric diet. An incremental VO 2 max test was performed before pretest and at the end posttest of the caloric restriction period. TABLE 5. Effect of increased protein intake and exogenous ketosis on hormonal parameters during a hypocaloric diet.

Hormonal parameters were measured before pretest and at the end posttest of the caloric restriction period. Significant main effects are shown in bold and effect sizes are reported as eta squared η 2. Scoring of injury was unaffected by the hypocaloric diet in PLA and KE on average: pre: 5.

Although not significant, the same trend was observed for PROT but not for PLA. Systemic and lower gastro-intestinal discomfort was almost absent in the pretest on average: 1. However, upper gastro-intestinal discomfort slightly increased from the pretest to the posttest in PROT pre:.

Low body weight is an important determinant of success in many sports. However, sustained hypocaloric diets generally induce undesired losses in lean mass. As such, effective dietary strategies that preserve muscle mass and athletic performance are essential.

Therefore, the current study aimed to investigate the effect of high protein intake as well as to evaluate the effectiveness of exogenous ketosis to preserve muscle mass during caloric restriction in female recreational athletes. Young lean females were enrolled in a fully-controlled weight loss program either combined with an increased intake of dietary protein, ketone ester supplementation or placebo.

Results of the current study indicate that increased protein intake fully inhibited muscle wasting in lean females during a period of caloric restriction, as was previously shown in males Mettler et al.

Increased protein intake also preserved exercise capacity as time to exhaustion during an incremental VO 2 max test remained unchanged following the caloric restriction period. On the other hand, increased protein intake was unable to prevent a decrease in REE and PAEE and did not affect appetite or stress regulation.

Although exogenous ketosis did not inhibit muscle wasting, it preserved exercise capacity as effectively as increased protein intake. Ketone ester supplementation also preserved a drop in REE and in overall stress parameters, but did not affect appetite regulation.

Because current recommendations with regard to weight loss in the context of athletic performance are largely based on studies in young fit males, we conducted the current intervention study in young lean females.

Although we did not directly compare the effects of caloric restriction between males and females, we performed a study with a protocol which was very similar to an earlier study in young males Mettler et al.

Overall, body composition changes produced by the hypocaloric diet - in combination with increased protein intake or not - were equivalent to the findings reported by Mettler et al. Mettler et al. This corroborates earlier findings showing that muscle protein turnover, in the basal state as well as in response to protein feeding, is similar between young females and males Fujita et al.

However, in the context of elite sports, especially in sports where aesthetics and the degree of leanness are important determinants of performance, females often enroll in even more extreme weight loss regimens than males, causing potential hormonal dysregulations that might result in bone demineralization Joy et al.

It has been proposed that an increased rate of protein intake may help to preserve bone mass during caloric restriction Tang et al. Interestingly, our research group previously reported that consistent ketone ester supplementation during a period of endurance training overload slightly increased bone mineral content in young male volunteers Poffé et al.

However, the increase in bone mineral content was accompanied by an increased caloric intake in the KE group, resulting in a caloric balance compared to a caloric deficit in the control group.

As such, the beneficial effect of exogenous ketosis on bone metabolism might have been driven by changes in caloric intake. These observations underpin the link between energy balance and bone metabolism which was previously reported by others Confavreux et al.

REE typically declines during a period of caloric restriction, due to a drop in body weight. Such a drop may eventually impair additional body weight loss or impede maintenance of low body weight Pasman et al.

Since REE is highly impacted by lean body mass Ravussin et al. However, several studies that combined caloric restriction with resistance training to preserve lean body mass still reported declines in REE Schwartz and Doucet, ; Hunter et al.

Accordingly, increased daily protein intake in the conditions of the current study was unable to inhibit the decline in REE despite preserving muscle mass.

As such, factors other than lean body mass may determine REE during caloric restriction Schwartz and Doucet, This is supported by the finding in the present study that exogenous ketosis, which did not prevent muscle wasting, was able to preserve REE.

That exogenous ketosis might affect REE has been proposed in a previous study from our lab in which participants supplemented with ketones during an overtraining period maintained an energetic balance as opposed to an energetic deficiency in the placebo group without differences in body weight between the groups Poffé et al.

Here it was speculated that a decrease in REE in the control group explained the absence of a drop in body weight. The 4-week caloric restriction period impaired performance during an incremental VO 2 max test.

Time to exhaustion was reduced which was associated with lower peak heart rates and blood lactate. Nonetheless, the reduction in time to exhaustion was blunted in PROT, likely due to the preservation of muscle mass.

Surprisingly, also in KE time to exhaustion was unaffected by the caloric restriction period. The preserved exercise capacity induced by exogenous ketosis is in line with a previous study from our lab where chronic ketone supplementation during a 3-week overload training protocol improved exercise tolerance during the last training week Poffé et al.

It should be noted that in this study exogenous ketosis also increased voluntary energy intake, predominantly from carbohydrates, questioning its potential direct effect on exercise tolerance. In contrast, in the current study, participants were restricted to a prescribed diet omitting any variation in spontaneous eating behavior or voluntary energy intake.

As such, the effects in the current study are attributed to a direct effect of ketone ester supplementation. Importantly, participants performed the VO 2 max tests in the absence of ketosis, which excludes potential acute effects of ketones on exercise performance.

Nevertheless, chronic ketone ester supplementation might have induced adaptations in muscle tissue such as increased angiogenesis Weis et al. Unfortunately, this hypothesis goes beyond the scope of the current study and future studies are required to clarify the mechanism s behind the improved exercise capacity induced by ketones.

Long-term success in weight management largely depends on psychological factors, such as the perception of hunger and satiety Hansen et al. Therefore, we looked at the effect of protein and ketone ester intake on appetite hormone regulation and perception for a given degree of caloric restriction.

The prevailing opinion that high-rate protein intake increases satiety to a greater extent than carbohydrate and fat consumption Paddon-Jones et al. The effects of ketone ingestion on appetite and satiety are not fully elucidated yet. Previous studies show that acute ketone intake may suppress hunger and desire to eat Stubbs et al.

In contrast, we previously demonstrated that post-exercise ketone ester administration during short-term endurance training overload not only impacted appetite hormone regulation, but also altered spontaneous eating behavior by stimulating voluntary energy intake Poffé et al.

However, the results of the present study show that exogenous ketosis altered neither circulating ghrelin, leptin or GDF15 levels, nor affected satiety perception. The current study design obviously excludes changes in voluntary eating behavior as well as any acute effect of exogenous ketosis on perceived appetite and appetite hormones since blood samples and questionnaires were taken early morning in the fasted state, 8—10 h after the last ketone ester dose, i.

Besides perception of hunger and satiety, psychological factors such as overall well-being and stress play a crucial role in weight loss maintenance.

Vomposition and Fpr athletes Almond cultivation in vigorous training that places stress on athlstic systems requiring Herbal immune boosters support for optimal athhletic. Protein for athletic body composition paramount composiion when optimizing recovery nutrition are rehydration and refueling which are covered athletix other papers in this athleti. Protein intakes at this level would Protein for athletic body composition rPotein require an overemphasis on protein-containing foods and, beyond convenience, does not suggest a need to use protein or amino acid-based supplements. This review also highlights that optimal protein intakes may exceed 1. We discuss the underpinning rationale for weight loss in track and field athletes, explaining changes in metabolic pathways that occur in response to energy restriction when manipulating protein intake and training. Finally, this review offers practical advice on protein intakes that warrant consideration in allowing an optimal adaptive response for track and field athletes seeking to train effectively and to lose fat mass while energy restricted with minimal or no loss of lean BM. Proyein Becker, Michigan State Athlrtic Extension - February 14, There Proteinn numerous athhletic about how much Robusta coffee beans an athlete Non-GMO weight loss pills. What Wellness the evidence say? Whether you are a bodybuilder, athlete, or recreationally active individual, few nutrients have been as controversial as protein. Protein is needed for numerous bodily processes including repairing muscle tissue, so it is not surprising that it is often consumed in high quantities among those who are physically active. However, the dietary recommendations state that most only need 0.

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