Category: Diet

Android vs gynoid fat distribution disparities

Android vs gynoid fat distribution disparities

Regional body composition measurement by DXA A and Ft B. Contact Bs General enquiries: journalsubmissions springernature. Matthews DRHosker JPRudenski ASNaylor BATreacher DFTurner RC Homeostasis model assessment: insulin resistance and beta-cell function from fasting plasma glucose and insulin concentrations in man.

Android vs gynoid fat distribution disparities -

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In this investigation, averages of the three systolic SBP and diastolic BP DBP readings were used as representative of the participants' SBP and DBP values. Triglycerides and glucose were measured enzymatically in serum using a series of coupled reactions after hydroxylation into glycerol.

HDL-cholesterol measurements for the — surveys were attained using a direct immunoassay technique. Fasting glucose was measured according to a hexokinase enzymatic method.

In NHANES, entire body DEXA scans were administered in the mobile examination center and the Hologic APEX software was used in the scan analysis to define the android and gynoid regions. The android area is roughly the area around the waist between the mid-point of the lumbar spine and the top of the pelvis while the gynoid area lies roughly between the head of the femur and mid-thigh.

In this study, smoking was categorized as smokers and nonsmokers, and moderate alcohol intake as consuming more than two alcoholic drinks per day for men and one drink per day for women.

Subjects with in the third tertile of android and gynoid percent fat were regarded as having elevated android and gynoid fat, respectively. Android-gynoid percent fat ratio was defined as android fat divided by gynoid fat.

Android-gynoid percent fat ratio is a pattern of body fat distribution that is associated with an increased risk for metabolic syndrome in healthy adults. All study analyses were conducted using SAS for Windows version 9.

To account for the unequal probability of selection, oversampling and nonresponse, the appropriate sample weights, strata and cluster variables were utilized. Descriptive statistics were performed using the survey frequency and survey means function in SAS.

We assessed cardiovascular risk of elevated android and gynoid percent fat rates by clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors two or more, three or more and four or more cardiometabolic risk factors that includes elevated glucose, elevated BP, elevated LDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol.

Independent associations between elevated android and gynoid percent fat, and their joint occurrence independent variables with cardiometabolic dysregulations elevated glucose, elevated BP, elevated LDL-cholesterol, elevated triglycerides, low HDL-cholesterol were assessed using odds ratios from multiple logistic regression models.

The studied population had BP, triglycerides, FPG, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol values that were within the National Cholesterol Education Program recommendations. There were no significant gender differences for age, BMI, FPG, LDL-cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol and total cholesterol differences.

As shown, there were statistically significant gender differences in rates of android and gynoid percent fat at every level of cardiometabolic risk numbers. In men, the rate of android percent fat for subjects with 0, 1—3 and 4—5 cardiometabolic risk factors were 9. In men, the rate of gynoid percent fat for subjects with 0, 1—3 and 4—5 cardiometabolic risk factors were 1.

Prevalence of android and gynoid adiposity by numbers of cardiometabolic risk factors in non-overweight American adults. We investigated age-, sex-, smoking- and alcohol intake-adjusted overall and sex-specific degrees of correlation of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat, android-gynoid percent fat ratio and BMI with cardiometabolic risk factors Table 2.

The degrees of correlation of android-gynoid percent fat ratio with cardiometabolic risk factors were higher than those between android percent fat or gynoid percent fat with cardiometabolic risk factors.

Overall, BMI was less highly correlated with the cardiometabolic risk factors that were investigated compared with android-gynoid percent fat ratio.

Results of overall Table 3 and sex-specific analyses Tables 4 and 5 of association of android and gynoid fat patterns and their combined effects on cardiometabolic dysregulation, including elevated glucose, BP, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol were determined using age-, BMI-, smoking- and alcohol intake-adjusted logistic regression models.

In both overall and sex-specific analyses, commingling of elevated android and gynoid percent was much more associated with higher odds of elevated glucose, elevated BP, elevated LDL-cholesterol, elevated glycerides and elevated triglycerides and lower odds of low HDL-cholesterol compared with either android or gynoid percent fat.

Despite the fact that locations of fat stores in the body are the most critical correlates of cardiometabolic risk, 25 , 26 generalized adiposity defined with BMI continues to be ubiquitous in the epidemiologic literature. Unlike BMI-defined generalized fat, regional fat stores as seen in android and gynoid are more potent because regional fat more easily undergoes lipolysis and readily releases lipids into the blood.

Android adiposity is characterized by intra-abdominal visceral fat and is associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes.

Although different BMI-defined adiposity phenotypes including metabolically unhealthy and metabolically healthy obese subjects are recognized, little is known about normal weight subjects who have android and gynoid adiposities. Relatively little is also known about the risk for cardiometabolic factors in normal weight subjects who have android and gynoid adiposities.

Hence, in this study, we took advantage of the availability of DEXA-estimated measures of android and gynoid adiposity phenotypes in a representative sample of normal weight American population. We used data from NHANES to determine the association of DEXA-defined elevated android and gynoid percent fat with cardiometabolic risk factors, and also to determine whether commingling of android and gynoid percent fat is associated with greater cardiometabolic deregulations than either android or gynoid adiposities in normal weight American adults.

Being national and representative in scope, NHANES represent an excellent data source for investigating the effect of DEXA-estimated regional fat accumulation.

The quality control measures instituted in NHANES give added credibility to the data. The result of this study indicates gender differences in prevalence of android and gynoid in American adults of normal weight.

Prevalences of android and gynoid adiposities were higher in women compared with men. In both men and women, gradients of increasing rates of android and gynoid adiposities with increased numbers of cardiometabolic risk factors were observed. In men and women, android-gynoid percent fat ratio was much more associated with cardiometabolic dysregulation than either android, gynoid percent fat or BMI as shown by the much higher degrees of correlation between android-gynoid percent fat ratio and cardiometabolic risk factors than those of android percent fat, gynoid percent fat or BMI.

This study also showed gender differences in the response of gynoid percent fat and joint occurrence of android elevated percent fat and gynoid percent fat for cardiometabolic risk factors that included elevated glucose, BP, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides and low HDL-cholesterol.

Elevated gynoid being in the highest tertile was not significantly associated with increased odds of any of the studied cardiometabolic risk factors. Interestingly, the joint occurrence of elevated android percent being in the highest tertile and gynoid percent fat being in the highest tertile was found to be associated with much higher odds of elevated cardiometabolic risks than independent association of elevated android percent fat.

In females, elevated android percent fat was only significantly associated with increased odds of HDL-cholesterol.

Similar to what was observed in men, the joint occurrence of elevated android and gynoid percent fat was found to be associated with much higher odds of elevated cardiometabolic risks than independent association of elevated android percent fat.

Our findings of positive correlation between android percent fat and android-gynoid fat ratio with triglycerides and negatively correlation between android-gynoid fat ratio and HDL-cholesterol are similar to the findings by Fu et al. Like the result of this study, Fu et al. Our finding is also in agreement with a study by De Larochellière et al.

In the study, accumulation of ectopic visceral adiposity in general, and of visceral adipose tissue in particular, was found associated with a worse cardiometabolic profile whether individuals were overweight or normal weight. Our findings of positive association between android percent fat and cardiometabolic dysregulation is also in agreement with a study that was conducted in obese children and adolescents which showed the positive association of android fat distribution and insulin resistance.

This finding agrees with previous studies reporting that gluteofemoral fat, located in thigh or hip, is associated with decreased cardiometabolic risks, including lower LDL-cholesterol, lower triglycerides and higher HDL-cholesterol.

Some limitations must be taken into account in the interpretation of results from this study. First, empirical sex-specific tertiles of android percent fat and gynoid percent fat were used to define elevated fat patterns, and subjects in the third tertile of android and gynoid percent fat were regarded as having elevated android and gynoid fat, respectively.

The implication of using sex-specific tertile values to define elevated fat patterns is unknown and warrants investigation. Second, bias due to selection, misclassification, survey nonresponse and missing values for some variables cannot be ruled out.

However, previous studies based on data from National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys have shown little bias due to survey nonresponse. Fourth, owing to sample size limitation, we did not consider ethnicity in our model.

Although android and gynoid adiposities measured by DEXA are more expensive than current and much simpler and cheaper measures such as BMI , DEXA-defined android and gynoid may have important diagnostic utility in some high-risk populations albeit of the adiposity status.

Further studies to assess diagnostic utilities of other popular anthropometric indices, such as waist-to-hip ratio and weight-to-height ratio for cardiometabolic risk factors are warranted.

The results from this study suggesting a much higher association of commingling of android and gynoid adiposities with cardiometabolic risk factors than the independent effects of android and gynoid percent fat in normal weight individuals may have public health relevance. Normal weight subjects who present with joint occurrence of android and gynoid adiposities should be advised of the associated health risks such as cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome.

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Cistribution Endocrine Disorders volume 22Article number: Cite this article. Metrics details. To diistribution the association between Anti-bacterial air purifiers body Andrpid distribution and different sites of BMD in male Androif Android vs gynoid fat distribution disparities populations. Use the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES datasets to select participants. The weighted linear regression model investigated the difference in body fat and Bone Mineral Density BMD in different gender. Multivariate adjusted smoothing curve-fitting and multiple linear regression models were used to explore whether an association existed between body fat distribution and BMD. Last, a subgroup analysis was performed according to age and gender group. Author Rat Laboratory of Exercise Biology DistributonBlaise Pascal University, Gynoi Drs Nutritional needs for team sports, Thivel, and Duché Amdroid, Department of Pediatrics, Carbohydrate loading for endurance sports Dieu, Nutritional needs for team sports Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand Dr Meyerand Children's Androdi Center, Romagnat Dr TaillardatPromoting metabolic health. Background Upper body fat distribution is associated with the early development of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents. Objective: To determine if an android to gynoid fat ratio is associated with the severity of insulin resistance in obese children and adolescents, whereas peripheral subcutaneous fat may have a protective effect against insulin resistance. Setting The pediatric department of University Hospital, Clermont-Ferrand, France. Design A retrospective analysis using data from medical consultations between January and January Participants Data from 66 obese children and adolescents coming to the hospital for medical consultation were used in this study. Android vs gynoid fat distribution disparities

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