Category: Diet

Antifungal properties

Antifungal properties

Graves' Disease. Anyone you Antifungla the following link with will be able to read this content:. Journal of Medical Microbiology. Many studies investigating the antifungal susceptibility of clinical strains of Candida spp.

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Foods and Herbs that are Antifungal.

Thank Antfungal for visiting nature. You are using a browser version with limited Antifhngal for Proprrties. To obtain the best experience, we recommend Antifungal properties use prpperties more up to Nutrient timing for vitamins and minerals browser Essential nutrient supplement turn off compatibility mode in Internet Explorer.

In the meantime, to ensure continued support, we propertes displaying the site without Stay consistently hydrated for peak performance and JavaScript. Six essential Increase energy for improved cognitive function from Antifuhgal, thyme, clove, prpperties, clary sage, and arborvitae exhibited different antibacterial and antifungal properties.

Antifungwl activity was shown against propertles Escherichia coli Antifungal properties, Salmonella typhimuriumYersinia enterocoliticaStaphylococcus aureusListeria Gut health and focusAntifungak Enterococcus faecalis and environmental bacteria Bacillus cereusArthrobacter protophormiaePseudomonas fragi and fungi Chaetomium globosum, Penicillium chrysogenumCladosporium cladosporoidesPropertiss alternataand Aspergillus fumigatus.

Oregano, thyme, clove and arborvitae showed very strong antibacterial Antifungql against all tested pro;erties at both proerties strength and reduced concentrations. These essential Stay consistently hydrated for peak performance showed different fungistatic and fungicidal activities when tested by direct Natural antibacterial solutions and in the vapor phase.

This study properies novel approaches for assessing the antimicrobial potential proprties essential oils in High protein diet plan direct contact and the vapor phase and also demonstrates Antufungal valuable properties Antifunhal the phenol-free arborvitae oil.

These results propertiee that all the Antiifungal essential oils might be used ;roperties broad-spectrum anti-microbial agents for decontaminating an pfoperties environment. Essential oils Properites are products derived from aromatic plants which contain around 20—60 components at quite different concentrations 1.

Their most common constituents poperties terpenes, aromatic and aliphatic compounds especially alcohols, esters, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, lactones, phenols and phenol prperties 1. EOs from Origanum vulgare L.

belonging to the Lamiaceae pfoperties have been used for their medicinal properties 1 for Anfifungal they possess antibacterial, antifungal 2345antioxidant, anti-inflammatory 6prpperties and analgesic properties 7. Citrus aurantium supplements for metabolism EO from Eugenia caryophyllata L.

Myrtaceae has shown antibacterial, antifungal, anti-oxidant 8 and anti-inflammatory effects 9. Porperties from Thuja plicata Properies has been tested for antimicrobial 1011 and insecticidal activity Stay consistently hydrated for peak performance antibacterial properties of EOs have been observed in several studies 113 Most of the studies have examined the direct propergies of EOs on proprties range of microorganisms.

For example several Gram-negative and Antifunyal bacteria are sensitive to various EOs 231415 Antifingal, 16 properfies, showing clear zones on agar assays in which the tested EO inhibits the growth propetties a particular microorganism.

Some studies also Antofungal the Herbal weight loss aids inhibition and minimal bactericidal concentrations in liquid medium 11Antifungal properties However, EOs can also exist Antfungal a propetties highly bioactive vapor phase, and Resveratrol and respiratory health EOs have shown antimicrobial activity that does not require direct contact with the EO 18Satiety and mindful eating20 Propertiies vapor phase seems propertis effective against fungi, and a number of studies propertiws shown that Amtifungal are more effective Antifyngal in the propeties state Safe appetite control in the liquid prkperties21 One possible explanation for this behavior is that the lipophilic molecules responsible for at least Antifungak of the activity might propertiew in Antifungao aqueous phase to form micelles, thereby suppressing their attachment to the organism, whereas the vapor phase allows free attachment In this situation, the observed antimicrobial activity arising from the easily volatilized components would result from a combination of the direct exposure to the vapor and the indirect exposure mediated by agar medium which absorbed the vapor Moreover, fungal strains tend to grow more on the agar surface than bacteria, and therefore would be more exposed to the vapor while the bacteria would be more strongly affected by the EO components that accumulated in the substrate.

EOs with biocidal activity were used to develop alternative disinfection strategies for indoor environments or in the food industry, on contaminated surfaces and equipment in food processing environments 152425 The ability of some EOs to prevent the formation of Listeria monocytogenes 15 and Salmonella enterica 26 biofilm on stainless steel surfaces has previously been demonstrated.

Although EOs were applied in the past to successfully treat a variety of diseases and to preserve health, they have been used more frequently for a greater variety of applications in recent years, including drugs, crop protectants, food additives, aromatherapy, and others.

The resulting increase in human exposure as a consequence of this expanded usage therefore requires a careful re-assessment of their toxicity and genotoxicity on the level of mammalian cells The potential toxic effects of plant extracts, including EOs, on humans should not be underestimated.

The mutagenicity of many plant extracts and their possible genotoxicity 2829303132 have been evaluated previously.

There are several studies examining the genotoxic properties of EOs 29333435but there is not nearly enough information about the potential risk of sensitization when using EOs.

The purpose of this study was to determine the antimicrobial properties of six EOs O. vulgareT. vulgarisS. sclareaL. angustifoliaE. caryophyllata and T. plicata against clinical and food-borne bacterial pathogens and as well as several environmental bacterial and fungal strains. The antifungal properties of the vapor phase of these EOs were also investigated.

Our in vitro trials determined the concentrations of EOs needed to reliably prevent the growth of pathogenic and environmental microorganisms.

Finally, in this paper we also report the first in vitro results on the cytotoxic and genotoxic activities of these EOs in human embryo lung cells HEL The in vitro antibacterial activity of six EOs against bacterial strains from both clinical and environmental origins both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria was assayed using the disc diffusion method by measuring inhibition zone diameters Fig.

Origanum vulgare OR and Thymus vulgaris TY EOs were extremely effective on all tested bacteria, with inhibition zones ranging from 26—54 mm.

Interestingly, OR and TY produced inhibition halos much larger than those of chloramphenicol, suggesting that they are more active than this antibiotic.

Environmental bacterial strains were much more sensitive to chloramphenicol than clinical strains; no significant difference in susceptibility was found between Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. LA and Salvia sclarea SA EOs were both less active against all bacteria, with inhibition zones ranging from 8—14 mm.

Antimicrobial potential of EOs. Results for the agar diffusion assay performed on the six clinical bacterial strains and three environmental bacterial strains are shown.

Each bar of the chart shows the mean of the inhibitory zone obtained for each EO analyzed 1 Staphyloccocus aureus2 Listeria monocytogenes3 Enterococcus fecalis4 Escherichia coli5 Salmonella typhimurium6 Yersinia enterolitica7 Bacillus cereus8 Arthrobacter protophormiae9 Pseudomonas fragi.

Preliminary screening revealed that the OR, TY, CL, and AR EOs were the most effective against all tested bacteria; therefore, additional the minimum inhibitory concentration MIC and minimum bactericidal concentration MBC assays were performed with these four EOs.

MIC and MBC assays were performed using a broth microdilution method in well strip tubes covered with strip-caps. The results obtained from these assays are shown in Table 1. These antibacterial assays revealed that OR has a very strong activity MIC 0.

All four EOs inhibited the growth of both clinical and environmental Gram-positive S. aureusL. monocytogenesE. faecalisB. cereusand A. protophormiae and Gram-negative bacteria E. coliS. typhimuriumY. enterocoliticaand P. A disc diffusion assay was performed to determine the sensitivity of five fungal strains to the six EOs by measuring the inhibition zone diameters in mm.

Our goal was to determine whether the different EOs had similar inhibition effects on several different fungal strains Cladosporium cladosporoidesAlternaria alternataAspergillus fumigatusChaetomium globosum and Penicillium chrysogenum.

The LA and SA EOs exhibited a lower level of inhibition. Antifungal activity of arborvitae and oregano EOs against Chaetomium globosum and Penicilium chrysogenum. Arrows indicate inhibition of fungal growth gray arrow IG and inhibition of fungal sporulation red arrow IS.

The MIC and minimal fungicidal concentrations MFC of the OR, TY, CL, and AR EOs against Ch. globosum, P. chrysogenumC. cladosporoidesA. alternataand A. fumigatus are summarized in Table 2.

The greatest antifungal activity against all tested strains was exhibited by OR, which had MICs of 0. TY EO, despite being efficient against all tested fungal strains, appeared to have no fungicidal activity against P.

chrysogenum, C. cladosporoides and A. fumigatus Table 2. CL also had no fungicidal activity against A. alternata and P.

Overall, OR, AR, TY and CL were effective as fungicidal agents but their efficiency varied from strain to strain Table 2. The fungicidal effect was confirmed when sub-culturing the tested fungi from the agar dilution assays into fresh malt extract broth MEB without EO resulted in no further mycelial growth or resumption of spore germination.

LA and SA EOs had no antifungal activity against any tested fungal strain. The efficacy of OR, TY, CL, AR, LA, and SA EOs in the vapor phase against Ch. fumigatus was investigated.

The volatile vapor of 0. Exceptionally, however, P. chrysogenum and A. fumigatus treated with CL volatile vapor 0. Mycelial growth inhibition of thyme essential oil vapor at different concentrations against Chaetomium globosumAspergillus fumigatus and Penicillium chrysogenum on a Malt Extract agar plate.

A control, B 0. The volatile vapor of LA and SA at 0. alternatabut had no fungicidal properties against any of them. The vapor phase of TY and AR were more effective against P. fumigatus than in the liquid phase.

Cytotoxicity or viability of human HEL cells. Further studies examined the genotoxic effects of these EOs, which were assessed at IC~ 10—

: Antifungal properties

Medicinal Plants Having Antifungal Properties

We also determined the capacity of our compounds to inhibit human Cyp3A4. As noted above, C. glabrata are responsible for a large portion of Candida infection in the US and represent a serious health threat US CDC website, a. Blood stream infection of either of these organisms are associated with high mortality Timmermans et al.

Immunocompromised patients are at an even greater risk should they be unfortunate enough to experience infections with C. albicans, C. glabrata, or other candida species Monk et al.

In addition, the rise of drug resistant fungi Sanglard et al. Similar to antibiotics and antimicrobial agents, the appearance of clinically relevant drug resistant fungi has been driven by prolonged use of antifungal agent in clinical setting as well as in the agricultural sector Snelders et al.

Our studies focused on the further exploration of the chemical space surrounding ± -Ketoconazole 2 began with the observation that the initial disclosure of this antifungal agent Beckx described only a handful of analogs.

This initial disclosure predates the advent of both high through put chemistry and high throughput screening, which may explain the limited nature of the original disclosure. Surprisingly, we found that the literature contained very few additional disclosures of ± -Ketoconazole analogs, and we viewed this as an opportunity to explore the chemical space surrounding this antifungal agent.

Specifically, we have demonstrated that the acetamide of 2S, 4R -Ketoconazole 4 can be replaced with sulfonamides 3a - 3l to produce compounds that have in vitro antifungal properties with respect to C.

Interestingly, we noted a divergence between antifungal activity and Cyp3A4 inhibition, Specifically, we observed that our most potent in vitro antifungal agent 3l demonstrated a wider window between Cyp3A4 inhibition and its activity against C.

albicans than ± -Ketoconazole 2 2. Additional studies will be required to determine the true potential of this opportunity. BB was responsible for designing the compounds, developing the necessary synthetic methods and preparing some of the 2S, 4R -ketoconazole sulfonamide analogs.

He also co-mentored BD as he prepared additional compounds. oversaw the effort of RS as he executed the in vitro antifungal assay described herein.

RS executed the in vitro antifungal assays described herein. BD was responsible for preparing some of the 2S, 4R -ketoconazole sulfonamide analogs.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Backx, L. Dioxolanylmethyl -1H-1, 2, 4-triazoles, US patent application USA U.

Trademark Office , 1. Google Scholar. Blass, B. Design, synthesis, and evaluation of 2S, 4R -Ketoconazole sulfonamide analogs as potential treatments for Metabolic Syndrome. PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

Bongomin, F. Global and multi-national prevalence of fungal diseases-estimate precision. Fungi 3, Chau, A. Molecular basis for enhanced activity of posaconazole against Absidia corymbifera and Rhizopus oryzae.

Agents Chemother. Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute CLSI fourth edition Wayne, PA: CLSI document M A4. FDA websie, FDA websie. Griffith, R.

Editors V. Roche, S. Zito, T. Lemke, and D. Kolaczkowska, A. Drug resistance mechanisms and their regulation in non-albicans Candida species. Maertens, J. History of the development of azole derivatives.

Magill, S. Changes in prevalence of health care-associated infections in U. McCarty, T. Invasive candidiasis. North Am. Molenaar-Kuijsten, L. A review of CYP3A drug-drug interaction studies: Practical guidelines for patients using targeted oral anticancer drugs.

Monk, B. Fungal lanosterol 14α-demethylase: A target for next-generation antifungal design. Proteins Proteom. Pfaller, M. Epidemiology of invasive candidiasis: A persistent public health problem. Roemer, T. Antifungal drug development: Challenges, unmet clinical needs, and new approaches.

Cold Spring Harb. Rotstein, D. Stereoisomers of ketoconazole: Preparation and biological activity. Sanglard, D. Snelders, E. Fungal Genet. The structure-function relationship of the Aspergillus fumigatus cyp51A L98H conversion by site-directed mutagenesis: The mechanism of L98H azole resistance.

Emergence of azole resistance in Aspergillus fumigatus and spread of a single resistance mechanism. PLoS Med. Timmermans, B. Adhesins in Candida glabrata. Fungi 4, Tsay, S. National burden of candidemia, United States, Open Forum Infect. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

US CDC website. html [Accessed June 27 ]. Vallabhaneni, S. Epidemiology and risk factors for echinocandin nonsusceptible Candida glabrata bloodstream infections: Data from a large multisite population-based candidemia surveillance program, Vermitsky, J.

Azole resistance in Candida glabrata: Coordinate upregulation of multidrug transporters and evidence for a pdr1-like transcription factor. Keywords: antifungal agent, antimicrobial agents, ketoconazole, Candida albicans , Candida glabrata.

Citation: Blass BE, Puri S, Sharma R and Day BM Antifungal properties of 2S, 4R -Ketoconazole sulfonamide analogs. doi: Received: 22 July ; Accepted: 08 August ; Published: 29 August Copyright © Blass, Puri, Sharma and Day. This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License CC BY.

The use, distribution or reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author s and the copyright owner s are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice.

No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms. Blass, Benjamin.

terebinthifolius steam and B. dracunculifolia EtOH extracts as well as R. urticaefolius and P. regnellii DCM extracts had a broad spectrum of activity, since all of them inhibited at least one of the fungal strains tested.

MIC measurements were carried out with extracts that were efficient against the tested microorganisms by the bioautography method. Greater activity was observed for the AcOEt and DCM extracts of the leaves of S.

terebinthifolius against C. krusei, C. glabrata AcOEt and S. schenckii was highly sensitive to EtOH extract from S. The results found in this study, when compared with previous works, show that leaf extract of S.

terebinthifolius seems to be more potent than many of the plant extracts examined to date for S. schenckii In contrast, extracts from the stem of S. terebinthifolius were more active against Cr. The antimicrobial activity of aqueous and EtOH extracts from the leaves of S. terebinthifolius has been reported in the literature to be active against Staphylococcus aureus , Bacillus subtilis , Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Escherichia coli and C.

However, the aqueous extract was not efficient against P. aeruginosa and E. coli and the EtOH and aqueous extract were more efficient against C. albicans In our study, the aqueous extracts from the leaf or stem of S. Earlier studies showed that S.

terebinthifolius is indicated for the treatment of stomatitis, bacterial vaginitis 1 and alveolitis or dry socket The composition of the leaf extract of S. terebinthifolius obtained by bioprospecting using the methodology described by Wagner 28 revealed the presence of saponins, flavonoids and triterpenes or steroids and tannins.

Loyd et al. dracunculifolia hexane extract was more efficient against Cr. The presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, anthraquinones and triterpenes or steroids was observed in hexane extract of B. Other authors have reported the presence of flavones, such as 8-OH flavone and 3,5,7-OH 6,4'-OME flavone butuletol , in B.

The presence of germacrene-D, bicyclogermacrene, and 4 fl-hydroxygermacra-l 10 , 5E-diene 13 as well as prenylated coumarinic acid derivatives have also been observed in the essential oil of this plant Hexane and DCM extracts of P.

regnellii demonstrated high activity against Cr. The EtOH extract of this plant also had activity against C. Holetz et al. regnellii had activity against several bacteria, especially S.

aureus and B. subtilis , inhibiting the growth of these bacteria at concentrations of 7. These values are lower than the values found for the other 12 plants studied.

However, C. albicans was resistant to the extracts of P. regnellii , agreeing with results obtained in the present study. Some compounds with activity against Gram-positive bacteria have already been isolated from extracts of P. These compounds include eupomatenoide-6 and eupomatenoide-5 compounds and conocarpan The antimicrobial properties of different species of the genus Piper have also been studied.

In a screening for medicinal plants with antimicrobial activity in Colombia, the methanolic extract of the leaf of P. lanceafolium showed activity against C. albicans , Klebsiella pneumoniae , Enterococcus faecalis , Mycobacterium phlei , B. subtilis and S.

aureus Piper nigrum black pepper is known to have antifungal activity due to lactones, terpenoids, alkaloids and saponins 7. hispidum and P. aduncum, also has strong antimicrobial activity This natural product and three other related compounds, 4- 5'-hydroxy-5'-nonanyl -1,2 methylenedioxy benzene, 4- 5'-non-4'-enyl -1,2- methylenedioxy benzene, and 6-methoxy-2,3- methylenedioxy allylphenol, were synthesized from piperonal and screened for their biological activity.

These four compounds showed high levels of antifungal and antibacterial activity against several fungi and bacteria Most extracts from R. urticaefolius had activity against S. coli, B. subtillis, P. aeruginosa and S.

urticaefolius were capable of inhibiting the growth of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria but were not capable to inhibit the growth of C. albicans and Cr. In the present study, the hexane extract of R.

urticaefolius presented activity against the growth of Cr. neoformans and the hexane and EtOH extracts against C. Chemical analysis of the genus Rubus have showed the presence of free acids, sugars, peptic substances and ascorbic, folic, acetic, caproic and benzoic acids as well as cumarins 6.

Herissantia crispa extracts were more active against Cr. acetosa extracts exhibited efficient activity against C. Extracts from the leaf of I.

dulcis inhibited C. krusei aqueous and C. The extract of A. brasiliana was inactive against all the microorganisms tested. Souza et al. aureus, S. epidermidis, E.

coli and Bacillus subtilis were resistant to the extracts of A. However, other authors found several biological activities in the extract of this plant as inhibitors of lymphocyte cell proliferation 17 , and as an antiviral agent against virus herpes simplex 1 This study provides data about the antimicrobial properties of some tropical plant species using extracts at concentrations that would be able to studied for therapeutically useful.

Some of these extracts may be applied clinically for fungal infection, specially the EtOH extract from the leaf of S. terebinthifolius against S. The results of the present work validate and document, in a systematic way, that most of the plant species studied possess substantial antifungal properties.

This explains the use of these plants in folk medicine for the treatment of various diseases, some related to microbial infections. Further study is necessary for purification, separation, isolation and characterization of the active principles from the hexane fraction obtained from the leaves of S.

Johann has a CAPES Coordenação de Aperfeiçoamento de Pessoal de Nível Superior fellowship from Brazilian government. The authors also thank EPAGRI from Itajaí, SC, Brazil, for providing and identifying some of the plant species and also thank to Prof.

Daniel Barcellos Falkenberg of the Departament of Botany of UFSC that identified the species Inga dulcis. The authors also thank CNPq Conselho Nacional Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico.

Submitted: August 03, ; Returned to authors for corrections: May 05, ; Approved: September 21, Open menu Brazil. Brazilian Journal of Microbiology. About the journal Editorial Board Instructions to authors Contact.

Português Español. Open menu. table of contents « previous current next ». Abstract Resumo English Resumo Portuguese. Text EN Text English. PDF Download PDF English. Antifungal properties; medicinal plants; susceptibility test. Propriedade antifúngica; plantas medicinais; teste de susceptibilidade.

br I Departamento de Microbiologia, Instituto de Ciências Biologicas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil II Departamento de Química, Instituto de Ciências Exatas, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil III Departamento de Química, Universidade Federal de Santa Catarina, Florianópolis, SC, Brasil ABSTRACT Antifungal properties of extracts from eight Brazilian plants traditionally used in popular Brazilian medicine were tested against five clinically relevant Candida species, Cryptococcus neoformans , and Sporothrix schenckii.

Key-words : Antifungal properties; medicinal plants; susceptibility test RESUMO A propriedade antifúngica de extratos de oito plantas utilizadas na medicina tradicional brasileira foi testada contra cinco espécies de Candida, com relevância clínica, Cryptococcus neoformans e Sporothrix schenckii.

Amorim, M. Treatment of bacterial vaginosis with Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi vaginal gel: a randomised controlled trial. Biavatti, M. Preliminary studies of alternative feed additives for broilers: Alternanthera brasiliana extract, propolis extract and linseed oil. Avic , 5, Bovine, M.

Malvaceae A. no Parque Estadual do Rio Doce, Minas Gerais, Brasil. Rodriguésia , 52, Bustamante, B. Endemic sporotrichosis. Curr Opin Infect Dis , Chen, E. Extracellular proteinase activity of Cryptococcus neoformans Clin. Cowan, M. Plant products as antimicrobial agents.

Elisabetsky, E. Etnofarmacologia como ferramenta na busca de substâncias ativas. In: C. Gibbons, S. An overview of plant extracts as potential therapeutics. Expert Opin. Pat , 13, Holetz, F. Screening of Some Plants Used in the Brazilian Folk Medicine for the Treatment of Infectious Diseases.

Oswaldo Cruz , 97, Lagrota, M. Inhibitory activity of extracts of Alternanthera brasiliana Amaranthaceae against the herpes simplex virus. Loayza, I. Essential Oils of Baccharis salicifolia, B. latifolia and B.

Phytochemistry , 38, Lopez, A. Antiviral and antimicrobial activities of Colombian medicinal plants. Loyd, H. Terpenes of Schinus terebinthifolius. Phytochemistry , 16, Masoko, P. Antifungal activities of six South African Terminalia species Combretaceae.

Melo Jr. Medicinal plants in the healing of dry socket in rats: Microbiological and microscopic analysis. Phytomedicine , 9, Moraes, V.

Topical antifungal medication This article is cited by Lavandula angustifolia mill. Inouye, S. Article CAS Google Scholar Singh, N. angustifolia Mill. Daniel Barcellos Falkenberg of the Departament of Botany of UFSC that identified the species Inga dulcis. Journal of Medical Microbiology. A polyene antifungal is a macrocyclic polyene with a heavily hydroxylated region on the ring opposite the conjugated system.
Antifungal Essential Oils: How to Use for Skin and Fungal Conditions Ravi GS, Chandur V, Shabaraya AR, Sanjay K. Chakraborty K, Shivakumar A, Ramachandran S. Shellie, R. There are many antiseptic and antifungal preparations to control nail fold infections paronychia. Sinha, S.
Some of the Best Natural Antifungal Herbs and Supplements krusei [ 17 ] Satiety and mindful eating. Article Google Scholar Tyagi, A. The pathogenic Antifunngal selected for this study were Antifunfal based Antitungal Antifungal properties porperties on Mental clarity practices power of some EOs to inhibit some human pathogens 2417 Thyme, cinnamon, oregano, clove, and mint are all examples of these kinds of oils. Molenaar-Kuijsten, L. Comparison of chemical composition and antioxidant activity of glycosidically bound and free volatiles from clove Eugenia caryophyllata Thunb.
Antifungal properties

Author: Faurg

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