Category: Diet

Creatine and recovery between sets

Creatine and recovery between sets

It involves Creatine and recovery between sets breakdown of glycogen, which is stored glucose Creaine glucose in the recovvery, to resynthesize Creatihe. No significant differences Website performance strategies groups were found for total load-volume PRE: 58, ± 35, Annd vs. Which brings us to one of the most common myths about creatine supplementation: That it can cause kidney problems. Beyond this, creatine stores can be maintained at lower doses of grams per day, sustaining creatine availability. Full recovery allows you to produce the greatest muscular force possible for each set performed, and thus receive the greatest absolute strength gains from your training.

Creatine and recovery between sets -

The more creatine stored in our muscles, the more energy we can draw on when exercising. This may explain why taking creatine supplements may translate into better-quality workouts with less fatigue.

But although creatine may aid your workouts and energy available for the working muscles, it will not suddenly make you fitter , especially if you already have naturally high stores of it to begin with. That said, a wealth of research indicates that taking creatine alongside exercise can benefit your training.

While largely contested, a few studies have also shown creatine can modestly reduce overall body fat especially when taken immediately before and after exercise. There is also evidence suggesting creatine can support recovery from exercise , especially if consumed with a protein drink , and help with injury prevention.

Taking creatine has been shown to significantly improve cognitive function and decision-making , particularly in vegetarians. Around 8 grams of creatine taken daily for five days has been shown to reduce mental fatigue associated with task repetition, and higher doses 20 grams may improve brain-muscle-related fatigue.

This further highlights that creatine could be beneficial to enhancing the quality of your workouts. People who exercise, however, may need to consume between grams daily to maintain body stores.

It can be boosted by even more if consumed alongside regular resistance training. Beyond this, creatine stores can be maintained at lower doses of grams per day, sustaining creatine availability.

Like financial lenders everywhere, the body is a selfish bugger, so it demands that we pay the oxygen debt back before it allows us to perform intensely again. Think of it this way: You are pushing through a set of heavy-ass squats. With each repetition you take a deep breath, then exhale while pushing the weight up.

All you notice at that moment is completing the rep before your legs give out, which of course you do because you rock. You know the oxygen debt is in the process of being paid back once you return to a normal breathing pattern. While the timing of ATP-PCr resynthesis is dependent upon the intensity of the activity, how significant of an oxygen debt was incurred, and how conditioned the body is in the first place, the consensus seems to be that it takes around two minutes for the body to regenerate phosphocreatine stores while strength training.

That means if you rest for two minutes between sets, your body has an opportunity to use the ATP-PCr energy system again. And again. Whether using your phone, Fitbit, or other timer, set it for two to three minutes and start it up every time you finish a set. I want you to actually time it.

You might be surprised how long it feels. Timing the rest period between your sets matters. Unless you are new to the sport of strength training or living under a rock, you likely know that one of the most popular bodybuilding supplements available is creatine monohydrate.

You may be wondering, is there a connection? Creatine is, in fact, one of the two most essential molecules in phosphocreatine. While our bodies naturally make creatine from amino acids as well as from the meat we eat, an overwhelming amount of studies have shown that ingesting supplemental creatine increases overall uptake into the muscle.

However, we can only store and use so much creatine at a time, and exactly how much depends on who you are. People who are more active and have large amounts of muscle mass typically benefit from additional creatine than a less-active individual.

However, the general guideline is that g of creatine supplementation per day is sufficient too much and our bodies excrete the extra in our urine. Because the more creatine we store, the more phosphocreatine becomes available.

The more phosphocreatine we can use, the more ATP we can make through the ATP-PCr energy system. Remember, the more we can push the ATP-PCr energy system to be the dominating force behind our workouts means more explosive power with each repetition.

People may be skeptical when I suggest that bodybuilding is a science, but there truly is a method to the madness. Through careful manipulation of the nutrients we eat, the maximum weight we lift, the kinds of supplements we use, and even the amount of rest we take in and out of the gym can all influence how we look, feel, and progress.

Plus, knowing this information makes you feel totally bad ass at dinner parties. Though you may lose a little credibility if you refer to phosphocreatine as Brangelina.

Rest about 2 minutes between sets to make each set COUNT for optimal muscle growth, power and performance and take creatine. Now hit the gym. I also invite you to join the GF2 Fitness and Contest Prep Forum on Facebook.

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Life Sci. Rawson ES, Conti MP, Miles MP: Creatine supplementation does not reduce muscle damage or enhance recovery from resistance exercise. Rawson ES, Gunn B, Clarkson PM: The effects of creatine supplementation on exercise-induced muscle damage.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Warren GL, Fennessy JM, Millard-Stafford ML: Strength loss after eccentric contractions is unaffected by creatine supplementation. J Appl Physiol. Nosaka K, Sakamoto K, Newton M, Sacco P: The repeated bout effect of reduced-load eccentric exercise on elbow flexor muscle damage.

Eur J Appl Physiol. Friden J, Lieber RL: Eccentric exercise-induced injuries to contractile and cytoskeletal muscle fibre components. Acta Physiol Scand. Kreider RB: Effects of creatine supplementation on performance and training adaptations.

Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Carey MF, Hayes A: The effect of whey isolate and resistance training on strength, body composition, and plasma glutamine.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Google Scholar. Brown SJ, Child RB, Donnelly AE, Saxton JM, Day SH: Changes in human skeletal muscle contractile function following stimulated eccentric exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol. Sorichter S, Mair J, Koller A, Muller E, Kremser C, Judmaier W, Haid C, Rama D, Calzolari C, Puschendorf B: Skeletal muscle troponin I release and magnetic resonance imaging signal intensity changes after eccentric exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury.

Clin Chim Acta. Byrne C, Eston R: Maximal-intensity isometric and dynamic exercise performance after eccentric muscle actions. J Sports Sci. Rinard J, Clarkson PM, Smith LL, Grossman M: Response of males and females to high-force eccentric exercise. Horder M, Magid E, Pitkanen E, Harkonen M, Stromme JH, Theodorsen L, Gerhardt W, Waldenstrom J: Recommended method for the determination of creatine kinase in blood modified by the inclusion of EDTA.

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Costill DL, Daniels J, Evans W, Fink W, Krahenbuhl G, Saltin B: Skeletal muscle enzymes and fiber composition in male and female track athletes. Byrne C, Twist C, Eston R: Neuromuscular function after exercise-induced muscle damage: theoretical and applied implications.

Bemben MG, Lamont HS: Creatine supplementation and exercise performance: recent findings. Willoughby DS, Rosene JM: Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myogenic regulatory factor expression.

Med Sci Sports Exerc. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, Olesen JL, Suetta C, Kjaer M: Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training. Parise G, Mihic S, MacLennan D, Yarasheski KE, Tarnopolsky MA: Effects of acute creatine monohydrate supplementation on leucine kinetics and mixed-muscle protein synthesis.

Cribb PJ, Williams AD, Stathis CG, Carey MF, Hayes A: Effects of whey isolate, creatine, and resistance training on muscle hypertrophy.

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J Biol Chem. Am J Physiol Cell Physiol. Eur J Biochem. Gunst JJ, Langlois MR, Delanghe JR, De Buyzere ML, Leroux-Roels GG: Serum creatine kinase activity is not a reliable marker for muscle damage in conditions associated with low extracellular glutathione concentration.

Clin Chem. Schwane JA, Buckley RT, Dipaolo DP, Atkinson MA, Shepherd JR: Plasma creatine kinase responses of to yr-old African-American men to eccentric exercise.

Lavender AP, Nosaka K: Changes in fluctuation of isometric force following eccentric and concentric exercise of the elbow flexors.

Chen TC, Hsieh SS: Effects of a 7-day eccentric training period on muscle damage and inflammation. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol. Fowler WM, Chowdhury SR, Pearson CM, Gardner G, Bratton R: Changes in serum enzyme levels after exercise in trained and untrained subjects.

Download references. We would like to thank the participants that participated in this study as well as my fellow colleagues at Victoria University who assisted with data collection. This study was funded by AST Sports Science Pty Ltd USA.

All researchers involved independently collected, analyzed, and interpreted the results from this study and have no financial interests concerning the outcome of this investigation. Exercise Metabolism Unit, Centre for Ageing, Rehabilitation, Exercise and Sport, School of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia.

School of Human Life Sciences, University of Tasmania, Launceston, Tasmania. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Alan Hayes. This study was funded by AST Sports Science Pty Ltd USA through an unrestricted research grant to Victoria University.

MC was the study coordinator and was involved in data analysis and manuscript preparation. ER and AW assisted in data collection. PC assisted in data collection, research design and obtaining grant funding. AH was involved in research design, grant funding, manuscript preparation and PI of the study.

Matthew B Cooke, Emma Rybalka, Andrew D Williams, Paul J Cribb and Alan Hayes contributed equally to this work. Open Access This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions.

Cooke, M. et al. Creatine supplementation enhances muscle force recovery after eccentrically-induced muscle damage in healthy individuals. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 6 , 13 Download citation. Received : 27 February Accepted : 02 June Published : 02 June Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:.

Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Abstract Background Eccentric exercise-induced damage leads to reductions in muscle force, increased soreness, and impaired muscle function.

Methods Fourteen untrained male participants Conclusion The major finding of this investigation was a significant improvement in the rate of recovery of knee extensor muscle function after Cr supplementation following injury.

Background Exercise-induced skeletal muscle injury is well understood as the product of unfamiliar or strenuous physical activity, and eccentric lengthening contractions under high loads are primarily responsible [ 1 , 2 ]. Methods Participants Fourteen healthy untrained males Table 1 Participant baseline characteristics Full size table.

Results Participant Characteristics At baseline there were no differences in the age, body weight or strength level 1 RM between the two groups Table 1.

Resistance Exercise Session Total Work No differences in total work performed during the resistance exercise session were observed between the two groups Table 2. Table 2 Resistance Exercise Session Total Work Full size table.

Table 3 Dietary Analyses Full size table. Figure 1. Full size image. Figure 2. Figure 3. Figure 5.

Background: Limited research Creatine and recovery between sets available on the potential impact of creatine Creatine and recovery between sets administration before or Crdatine workouts betwren athletes. This recobery aimed to recovefy Creatine and recovery between sets effects of pre- vs. post-exercise creatine monohydrate Cteatine on resistance Strategic resupply planning adaptations and body composition. Methods: In a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, parallel design, 34 healthy resistance-trained male and female athletes were randomly assigned and matched according to fat free mass to consume a placebo, or 5-g dose of creatine monohydrate within 1 h before training, or within 1 h after training for 8 weeks, while completing a weekly resistance training program. Participants co-ingested gram doses of both whey protein isolate and maltodextrin along with each assigned supplement dose. Recovert stuff? Is that the end of the story on how we can Creatine and recovery between sets into biology recovedy benefit our gains? ATP is to us like fuel is to our car. Our bodies pretty much make it as we go along. We do this through three different energy systems.

Creatine and recovery between sets -

Creatine supplements are a type of dietary supplement that helps the body produce more creatine. This can help improve athletic performance and muscle mass. Creatine supplements are available in powder, pill, or liquid form.

There are several reasons why people take creatine supplements, including increased energy and improved athletic performance.

Some people also use creatine as a way to build muscle, although there is limited evidence to support this benefit. Additionally, many people believe that taking creatine on rest days may help the body recover more quickly from intense workouts.

While there is some evidence to support the benefits of taking creatine on rest days, there are also risks associated with doing so. For example, some people experience side effects such as weight gain, increased water retention, or digestive issues. In addition, overuse of creatine supplements could potentially strain the kidneys or liver.

There is no one-size-fits-all answer to this question, as the best cycling schedule will depend on a variety of factors, including your age, overall health, and fitness goals.

Some people may benefit from taking creatine on rest days every so often, while others may find that regular cycles of creatine supplementation are better for their body. First of all, many athletes and bodybuilders take creatine on rest days in order to help them recover from their workouts.

This is because creatine helps the body produce more energy, which can make it easier for the person to get through their workouts. Additionally, since creatine improves recovery times after exercise, taking it on rest days can actually help the person recover faster and feel less soreness and fatigue after working out.

Another reason why many people take creatine on rest days is that it can help them build muscle more quickly. Creatine increases the amount of protein in your muscles, which helps stimulate muscle growth. Therefore, taking creatine on rest days can be a great way to give your muscles a boost and help you build muscle more quickly.

However, there are some potential risks associated with taking creatine on rest days. For example, it can cause stomach upset in some people. Additionally, if a person takes too much creatine at once, they may experience side effects like nausea and headaches.

Finally, taking creatine too frequently or at high doses can contribute to dehydration and excess water weight. Whether or not you choose to take creatine on rest days is up to you. Some people find that the benefits of taking it outweigh the risks, while others prefer to skip it altogether in order to avoid potential side effects.

Some people take creatine on rest days because it can help them recover from their workouts more quickly. Additionally, creatine can help the person build muscle more quickly. However, there are some potential risks associated with taking creatine on rest days, including stomach upset, nausea, and headaches.

If you skip a day of creatine, it is possible that your muscles may not recover as quickly from your workouts. However, there are other supplements or techniques that can help promote muscle recovery on rest days, such as protein shakes and stretching.

Additionally, if you are concerned about taking creatine on rest days, you may want to consult with your doctor or a nutritionist to discuss the pros and cons of taking it. In the end, whether you choose to take creatine on rest days is up to you, but it's important to consider all of the potential risks and benefits before making your decision.

Overall, whether you decide to take creatine on rest days is up to you. Some people may find that the benefits of taking it outweigh the risks, while others may prefer to skip it altogether. However, before making your decision, it's important to consider all of the potential side effects and discuss them with your doctor or a nutritionist.

With proper planning and care, you can get the most out of your workouts on rest days by taking creatine supplements. Just be sure to consult with your doctor beforehand, and always follow the recommended dosage instructions carefully. There is no definitive answer to this question, as the effects of stopping creatine intake can vary from person to person.

Some people may experience a reduction in muscle size and strength after stopping creatine, while others may not see any changes at all. One possible reason for this discrepancy is that your muscles adapt to the presence of creatine over time, so you may need to take it consistently in order to maintain its benefits.

Additionally, the duration and dosage of your creatine intake can play a role in whether or not you lose muscle size after stopping. If you are looking to maintain your muscle size and strength while avoiding the potential risks of taking creatine on rest days, there are other supplements or techniques that you may want to consider.

For example, protein shakes and regular stretching can help promote muscle recovery on rest days, while also preventing muscles from shrinking or losing strength. Overall, the answer to whether your muscles shrink when you stop taking creatine is not straightforward.

Factors like dosage and duration of use can impact the effects of stopping creatine, so it's important to consult with your doctor or nutritionist before making any decisions. With the right planning and care, however, you can maintain muscle size and strength even when taking a break from creatine supplements.

There is no one right way to plan your rest days for maximum muscle growth, as this will vary depending on factors like your individual workout routine, diet, and lifestyle.

Some considerations to keep in mind when planning your rest days include consulting with a fitness or nutrition expert for guidance, ensuring that you're getting enough sleep each night, and incorporating regular stretching and protein-rich foods into your diet.

Additionally, you may want to experiment with different rest day routines to find one that works best for you. For example, some people prefer to take lighter workouts on their rest days, while others may focus more on recovery techniques like foam rolling or massage therapy.

Ultimately, the key is to find a balance between rest and recovery that works best for your body and goals. So if you're looking to maximize muscle growth on your rest days, the most important thing is to be strategic about planning and executing your rest day routine.

With the right approach, you can ensure that you're giving your body enough time to recover while also continuing to make progress towards your fitness goals. Mihic S, MacDonald JR, McKenzie S, Tarnopolsky MA: Acute creatine loading increases fatfree mass, but does not affect blood pressure, plasma creatinine, or CK activity in men and women.

Volek JS, Kraemer WJ, Bush JA, Boetes M, Incledon T, Clark KL, Lynch JM: Creatine supplementation enhances muscular performance during high-intensity resistance exercise. J Am Diet Assoc.

Volek JS, Duncan ND, Mazzetti SA, Staron RS, Putukian M, Gomez AL, Pearson DR, Fink WJ, Kraemer WJ: Performance and muscle fiber adaptations to creatine supplementation and heavy resistance training. Burke DG, Chilibeck PD, Parise G, Candow DG, Mahoney D, Tarnopolsky M: Effect of creatine and weight training on muscle creatine and performance in vegetarians.

Sakkas GK, Mulligan K, Dasilva M, Doyle JW, Khatami H, Schleich T, Kent-Braun JA, Schambelan M: Creatine fails to augment the benefits from resistance training in patients with HIV infection: a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. PLoS One.

Chilibeck PD, Magnus C, Anderson M: Effect of in-season creatine supplementation on body composition and performance in rugby union football players. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Bemben MG, Witten MS, Carter JM, Eliot KA, Knehans AW, Bemben DA: The effects of supplementation with creatine and protein on muscle strength following a traditional resistance training program in middle-aged and older men.

J Nutr Health Aging. Tipton KD, Wolfe RR: Protein and amino acids for athletes. J Sports Sci. Tipton KD, Elliott TA, Cree MG, Aarsland AA, Sanford AP, Wolfe RR: Stimulation of net muscle protein synthesis by whey protein ingestion before and after exercise.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Candow DG, Chilibeck PD: Timing of creatine or protein supplementation and resistance training in the elderly. Aragon AA, Schoenfeld BJ: Nutrient timing revisited: is there a post-exercise anabolic window?.

Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Stark M, Lukaszuk J, Prawitz A, Salacinski A: Protein timing and its effects on muscular hypertrophy and strength in individuals engaged in weight-training.

Kerksick C, Harvey T, Stout J, Campbell B, Wilborn C, Kreider R, Kalman D, Ziegenfuss T, Lopez H, Landis J: International Society of Sports Nutrition position stand: nutrient timing. Wilson J, Wilson GJ: Contemporary issues in protein requirements and consumption for resistance trained athletes.

White JP, Wilson JM, Austin KG, Greer BK, St John N, Panton LB: Effect of carbohydrateproteinsupplement timing on acute exercise-induced muscle damage. Cribb PJ, Hayes A: Effects of supplement timing and resistance exercise on skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Levenhagen DK, Gresham JD, Carlson MG, Maron DJ, Borel MJ, Flakoll PJ: Postexercise nutrient intake timing in humans is critical to recovery of leg glucose and protein homeostasis.

CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Tipton KD, Ferrando AA, Phillips SM, Doyle D, Wolfe RR: Postexercise net protein synthesis in human muscle from orally administered amino acids. Am J Physiol. Tipton KD, Ferrando AA: Improving muscle mass: response of muscle metabolism to exercise, nutrition and anabolic agents.

Essays Biochem. Tipton KD, Rasmussen BB, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Owens-Stovall SK, Petrini BE, Wolfe RR: Timing of amino acid-carbohydrate ingestion alters anabolic response of muscle to resistance exercise. Hopkins WG, Marshall SW, Batterham AM, Hanin J: Progressive statistics for studies in sports medicine and exercise science.

Batterham AM, Hopkins WG: Making meaningful inferences about magnitudes. Int J Sports Physiol Perform. PubMed Google Scholar. Chrusch MJ, Chilibeck PD, Chad KE, Davison KS, Burke DG: Creatine supplementation combined with resistance training in older men. Percario S, Domingues SP, Teixeira LF, Vieira JL, de Vasconcelos F, Ciarrocchi DM, Almeida ED, Conte M: Effects of creatine supplementation on oxidative stress profile of athletes.

Jagim AR, Oliver JM, Sanchez A, Galvan E, Fluckey J, Riechman S, Greenwood M, Kelly K, Meininger C, Rasmussen C, Kreider RB: A buffered form of creatine does not promote greater changes in muscle creatine content, body composition, or training adaptations than creatine monohydrate.

Souza-Junior TP, Willardson JM, Bloomer R, Leite RD, Fleck SJ, Oliveira PR, Simao R: Strength and hypertrophy responses to constant and decreasing rest intervals in trained men using creatine supplementation.

Willoughby DS, Rosene J: Effects of oral creatine and resistance training on myosin heavy chain expression. Olsen S, Aagaard P, Kadi F, Tufekovic G, Verney J, Olesen JL, Suetta C, Kjaer M: Creatine supplementation augments the increase in satellite cell and myonuclei number in human skeletal muscle induced by strength training.

J Physiol. Curr Sports Med Rep. Rasmussen BB, Tipton KD, Miller SL, Wolf SE, Wolfe RR: An oral essential amino acidcarbohydrate supplement enhances muscle protein anabolism after resistance exercise. J Appl Physiol.

Verdijk LB, Jonkers RA, Gleeson BG, Beelen M, Meijer K, Savelberg HH, Wodzig WK, Dendale P, van Loon LJ: Protein supplementation before and after exercise does not further augment skeletal muscle hypertrophy after resistance training in elderly men. Am J Clin Nutr. Hoffman JR, Ratamess NA, Tranchina CP, Rashti SL, Kang J, Faigenbaum AD: Effect of protein-supplement timing on strength, power, and body-composition changes in resistancetrained men.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Esmarck B, Andersen JL, Olsen S, Richter EA, Mizuno M, Kjaer M: Timing of postexercise protein intake is important for muscle hypertrophy with resistance training in elderly humans. Download references. Many thanks to Jeff Stout PhD for running the stats on this project.

Exercise and Sports Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, S. University Drive, University Park Plaza Suite , Davie, FL, , USA.

You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar. Correspondence to Jose Antonio. VC and JA contributed significantly to all aspects of this study. Both authors read and approved the final manuscript.

This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. Reprints and permissions. Antonio, J. The effects of pre versus post workout supplementation of creatine monohydrate on body composition and strength. J Int Soc Sports Nutr 10 , 36 Download citation.

Received : 09 May Accepted : 10 July Published : 06 August Anyone you share the following link with will be able to read this content:. Sorry, a shareable link is not currently available for this article. Provided by the Springer Nature SharedIt content-sharing initiative.

Skip to main content. Search all BMC articles Search. Download PDF. Download ePub. Abstract Background Chronic supplementation with creatine monohydrate has been shown to promote increases in total intramuscular creatine, phosphocreatine, skeletal muscle mass, lean body mass and muscle fiber size.

Methods Nineteen healthy recreational male bodybuilders mean ± SD; age: Conclusions Creatine supplementation plus resistance exercise increases fat-free mass and strength.

Introduction Chronic supplementation with creatine has been shown to increase lean body mass and enhance exercise performance [ 1 — 10 ]. Methods Subjects Nineteen male recreational bodybuilders mean ± SD: age, Experimental design Subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups: a PRE-SUPP or POST-SUPP group.

Resistance training protocol All subjects followed a periodized, split-routine bodybuilding training regimen geared primarily for skeletal muscle hypertrophy.

Food diary, workout log, body composition Subjects provided a hour diet recall on one random day on week 1, 2, 3, and 4 as determined by the investigators.

Exercise performance assessment Subjects performed a 1 repetition maximum lifts 1-RM on the bench press. Statistical analysis Data were analyzed utilizing five separate 2-way [group Pre-Treatment [aka PRE-SUPP] vs. Results Twenty-two subjects were initially recruited for this investigation.

Table 1 Body composition and strength Full size table. Table 2 Magnitude-based inference results Full size table. Figure 1. Individual data for FFM in the POST-SUPP group.

Full size image. Figure 2. Individual data for FFM in the PRE-SUPP group. Table 3 Dietary intake Full size table. Discussion The results from this study suggest that consuming creatine monohydrate post exercise may be superior to consuming it pre exercise with regards to improving body composition i.

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Article PubMed Central CAS PubMed Google Scholar Download references. Author information Authors and Affiliations Exercise and Sports Sciences, Nova Southeastern University, S. View author publications. Additional information Competing interests Jose Antonio PhD was a former sports science consultant to VPX® Sports.

Rights and permissions This article is published under license to BioMed Central Ltd. About this article Cite this article Antonio, J. Copy to clipboard. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition ISSN:

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