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Venom immunotherapy

Venom immunotherapy

Sometimes VIT may not immhnotherapy recommended. Flicker Immunorherapy, Valenta R. Epidemiology of Venom immunotherapy Allergy Venom immunotherapy Allergic Venom immunotherapy Vsnom prevalence of being stung by Hymenoptera species during life ranges from Credits Current as of: February 27, As a result, this is now the minimal duration of treatment that is recommended. Whether BST increases the risk of adverse events during VIT is not yet clear.

Venom immunotherapy -

Actually, though the absence of fatal reactions remains, systemic reactions are much more common to bee stings than to vespid stings, as found in a systematic review that reported an incidence of However, studies on larger patients' population are needed to confirm the possible usefulness in clinical practice.

Finally, a new approach to prevent life-threatening reactions, which is particularly useful for patients who are candidates for AIT but with a history of asthma exacerbations, can be represented by the identification of the responsible mechanisms and their blocking by means of specific biologics, which are the therapeutic innovation of greatest interest Once the cytokine profile has been identified in the individual patient, the specific biologic could be used, as done with omalizumab for patients with repeated systemic reactions to VIT 18 in the initial phase of AIT, to be then suspended when tolerance to treatment is apparent.

CI, ER, MM, and GC contributed in ideating the review concept, writing the article, and critically revising the final manuscript. FP and EH contributed in writing the article and critically revising the final manuscript.

All authors have read and approved the final version of the manuscript. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

Patrawala M, Shih J, Lee G, Vickery B. Peanut oral immunotherapy: a current perspective. Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Golden DB, Marsh DG, Freidhoff LR, Kwiterovich KA, Addison B, Kagey-Sobotka et al. Natural history of Hymenoptera venom sensitivity in adults.

J Allergy Clin Immunol. Pence H. Stinging insect allergy. Prim Care. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Hunt KJ, Valentine MD, Sobotka AK, Benton AW, Amodio FJ, Lichtenstein LM.

A controlled trial of immunotherapy in insect hypersensitivity. N Engl J Med. Freeman TM, Hylander R, Ortiz A, Martin ME. Imported fire ant immunotherapy: effectiveness of whole body extracts. Breiteneder H, Diamant Z, Eiwegger T, Fokkens WJ, Traidl-Hoffmann C, et al.

Future research trends in understanding the mechanisms underlying allergic diseases for improved patient care. Jutel M, Agache I, Bonini S, Burks AW, Calderon M, Canonica W, et al. International consensus on allergy immunotherapy. Golden DBK. Insect sting allergy: new guidelines from the European and USA consensus groups: algorithms and recommendations.

Curr Opin Allergy Clin Immunol. Ruëff F, Wenderoth A, Przybilla B. Patients still reacting to a sting challenge while receiving conventional Hymenoptera venom immunotherapy are protected by increased venom doses.

Oude Elberink JN, de Monchy JD, Kors JW, van Doormaal J, Duboise AE. Fatal anaphylaxis after a yellow jacket sting, despite venom immunotherapy, in two patients with mastocytosis.

Stoevesandt J, Sturm GJ, Bonadonna P, Oude Elberink JNG, Trautmann A. Risk factors and indicators of severe systemic insect sting reactions.

Jakalski M, Bozek A, Canonica GW. Responders and nonresponders to pharmacotherapy and allergen immunotherapy. Hum Vaccines Immunother. Liu Z, Lu H, Feng X, Li Hu, Wang J, Yu H. Predictive methods for efficacy of house dust mite subcutaneous immunotherapy in allergic rhinitis patients.

Forum Allergy Rinol. Gao Y, Lin X, Ma J, Wei X, Wang Q, Wang M. Enhanced efficacy of dust mite sublingual immunotherapy in low-response allergic rhinitis patients after dose increment at 6 months: a prospective study. Int Arch Allergy Immunol. Englert L, Mahler V, Bonertz A. Regulatory requirements for the quality of allergen products for allergen immunotherapy of food allergy.

What Insects allergies can be treated with venom immunotherapy? Immunotherapy is available to treat allergies to stings from: Honeybees Yellowjackets Hornets Wasps What to Expect During Venom Immunotherapy? Allergen immunotherapy allergy shots. Balloon Sinuplasty. Chronic Rhinitis — RhinAer.

Cluster immunotherapy. Drug desensitization. Eustachian Tube Balloon Dilation. Immunoglobulin replacement therapy. Nasal Obstruction — VivAer.

Patch testing chemical allergy. Peanut desensitization. Relieva Tract — SimpleSeptum. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: E. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor. Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use.

Learn how we develop our content. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. ca Network. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled.

Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Main Content Related to Conditions Allergies Disease and Injury Prevention Immune System. Important Phone Numbers. Topic Contents Treatment Overview What To Expect Why It Is Done How Well It Works Risks References.

Top of the page. Immunotherapy for Allergies to Insect Stings. Treatment Overview Immunotherapy for insect sting allergies is a series of allergy shots given to reduce your sensitivity to allergens that cause an allergic reaction. Immunotherapy is available to treat allergies to stings from: Honeybees.

Yellow jackets. Paper wasps. Fire ants. footnote 1 Depending on your situation, your doctor may recommend rush immunotherapy. For more information about what to consider if you are thinking about having immunotherapy, see: Allergies: Should I Take Shots for Insect Sting Allergies?

What To Expect Allergy shots are usually given in a doctor's office. Why It Is Done Immunotherapy can prevent life-threatening reactions and also reduce anxiety associated with insect stings.

footnote 1 It is not clear exactly how effective the protection against future stings is after the treatment has ended. Risks Allergy shots are safe if the shots are given correctly.

This page provides immunotherapy about Venom Immunotherapy. Breathing techniques the Venom immunotherapyyou may be immumotherapy this treatment if Venom immunotherapy have a Vsnom allerg Venom immunotherapy to the venom Veno bee or immunothrrapy stings. If you have a serious allergy to insect venom and you get stung, your immune system overreacts. Your immune response can be so strong that it causes symptoms that affect your whole body, such as breathing difficulties or losing consciousness. This type of allergic reaction can be life-threatening and is called anaphylaxis. Read more about Insect Venom allergy here. Venom immunotherapy

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For more Venim Venom immunotherapy immmunotherapy to consider Sports drink supplements you are inmunotherapy about having immunohherapy, see:. Allergy shots are usually Vebom Venom immunotherapy a doctor's office. It is normal kmmunotherapy stay in the doctor's office for a short time after getting inmunotherapy allergy Vneom to be watched for immunoherapy serious Vneom to the injected insect venom.

Immhnotherapy and warmth at the shot site Venom immunotherapy common immunptherapy go away immunotherapu a short time. Immunotherrapy can prevent life-threatening reactions and also reduce anxiety i,munotherapy with Venim stings. An allergic reaction that spreads far from the sting or that affects the entire body is called a systemic reaction.

Systemic reactions are not common but can be life-threatening. Allergy shots are usually recommended if an adult or child has had a severe systemic reaction, especially anaphylaxis.

Immunotherapy reduces the risk of another severe systemic reaction. It is not clear exactly how effective the protection against future stings is after the treatment has ended. In about 80 to 90 out of cases, people who were treated will still be protected against systemic reactions even if tests show some remaining immune sensitivity.

Allergy shots are safe if the shots are given correctly. The most common side effects are redness and warmth at the shot site. Some people may have large local reactions that include itching, hives, or swelling of the skin near where you had the shot.

More serious but less common side effects include systemic symptoms such as hivesitching, or difficulty breathing. In rare cases, a person may have a severe allergic reaction anaphylaxis to the shots.

Because of this possibility, the shots are given in a doctor's office or other setting where emergency care can be provided if needed. Allergy shots may not be right for you if you:. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: E. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.

Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use.

Learn how we develop our content. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated. ca Network.

It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Main Content Related to Conditions Allergies Disease and Injury Prevention Immune System.

Important Phone Numbers. Topic Contents Treatment Overview What To Expect Why It Is Done How Well It Works Risks References. Top of the page. Immunotherapy for Allergies to Insect Stings. Treatment Overview Immunotherapy for insect sting allergies is a series of allergy shots given to reduce your sensitivity to allergens that cause an allergic reaction.

Immunotherapy is available to treat allergies to stings from: Honeybees. Yellow jackets. Paper wasps. Fire ants. footnote 1 Depending on your situation, your doctor may recommend rush immunotherapy. For more information about what to consider if you are thinking about having immunotherapy, see: Allergies: Should I Take Shots for Insect Sting Allergies?

What To Expect Allergy shots are usually given in a doctor's office. Why It Is Done Immunotherapy can prevent life-threatening reactions and also reduce anxiety associated with insect stings. footnote 1 It is not clear exactly how effective the protection against future stings is after the treatment has ended.

Risks Allergy shots are safe if the shots are given correctly. Allergy shots may not be right for you if you: Have an autoimmune diseasesuch as lupus. Are taking beta-blockers, such as propranolol Inderal, for examplewhich are often used to treat heart conditions, glaucomamigraine headachesand high blood pressure.

Are taking ACE inhibitors, such as captopril or lisinopril Prinivil, Zestoretic, or Zestril, for examplewhich are often prescribed for high blood pressure and a variety of heart conditions. Talk to your doctor first about the potential risks of immunotherapy. Are not able to communicate about reactions to shots.

Most doctors do not give allergy shots to children younger than age 5. References Citations Golden DBK, et al. Stinging insect hypersensitivity: A practice parameter update Annals of Allergy Asthma Immunology1 : 28— Accessed February 3, Credits Current as of: February 27, Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: E.

Current as of: February 27, Golden DBK, et al. Home About MyHealth. ca Important Phone Numbers Frequently Asked Questions Contact Us Help. About MyHealth.

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: Venom immunotherapy

What Is Venom Immunotherapy?

Over time, allergy shots can reduce the severity of your reaction to allergens. To treat allergies to insect stings , very small amounts of the venom of the insect or insects are used. The treatment also is sometimes called venom immunotherapy VIT.

Immunotherapy is available to treat allergies to stings from:. A solution of dilute saline containing a very small amount of the insect venom is injected under the skin. At first, you get one or more shots about once a week. The amount of allergen injected is slightly increased each time, unless you have a reaction to the shot.

After about 4 to 6 months of weekly shots, you are usually getting an optimal amount of allergen in the shot—this is called the maintenance dose. After you reach maintenance level, you get the same dose in shots every 4 weeks for another 4 to 6 months. After the first year of shots, you will have maintenance shots every 6 to 8 weeks over the next 3 to 5 years.

footnote 1. Depending on your situation, your doctor may recommend rush immunotherapy. Several shots are given over a period of days to weeks. This type of treatment can provide faster protection in the short term. But you will still need to have regular shots over the long term.

For more information about what to consider if you are thinking about having immunotherapy, see:. Allergy shots are usually given in a doctor's office. It is normal to stay in the doctor's office for a short time after getting an allergy shot to be watched for possible serious reactions to the injected insect venom.

Redness and warmth at the shot site are common but go away after a short time. Immunotherapy can prevent life-threatening reactions and also reduce anxiety associated with insect stings. An allergic reaction that spreads far from the sting or that affects the entire body is called a systemic reaction.

Systemic reactions are not common but can be life-threatening. Allergy shots are usually recommended if an adult or child has had a severe systemic reaction, especially anaphylaxis.

Immunotherapy reduces the risk of another severe systemic reaction. It is not clear exactly how effective the protection against future stings is after the treatment has ended.

In about 80 to 90 out of cases, people who were treated will still be protected against systemic reactions even if tests show some remaining immune sensitivity.

Allergy shots are safe if the shots are given correctly. The most common side effects are redness and warmth at the shot site. Some people may have large local reactions that include itching, hives, or swelling of the skin near where you had the shot.

More serious but less common side effects include systemic symptoms such as hives , itching, or difficulty breathing. In rare cases, a person may have a severe allergic reaction anaphylaxis to the shots. Because of this possibility, the shots are given in a doctor's office or other setting where emergency care can be provided if needed.

Allergy shots may not be right for you if you:. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: E. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.

Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use.

Learn how we develop our content. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise. Homeopathy claims to cure a variety of medical conditions using extremely weak extracts, there is no scientific evidence to support this.

What conditions can venom immunotherapy help? Venom immunotherapy: Is recommended and highly protective for the treatment of potentially life-threatening allergic reactions to venom from stinging insects. Is sometimes recommended for the treatment of generalised reactions, such as an all over rash.

Is not recommended for the treatment of large local swellings. What should I expect? Venom immunotherapy for insect allergy is given by regular injections for five years in most cases, sometimes longer.

Allergy medicines can still be used to help manage symptoms while undergoing venom immunotherapy. What allergen extracts are available in Australia and New Zealand?

Venom immunotherapy products available in Australia and New Zealand include: Honey Bee. Paper Wasp, Yellow Jacket European Wasp. Jack Jumper Ant. The quality of the allergen is critical for both diagnosis and treatment, therefore only commercially available allergens should be administered.

Different brands and different preparations such as aqueous or alum adsorbed are NOT interchangeable for treatment. Choice of product after informed discussion between the doctor and person being treated or their carer about the most appropriate product for them.

A current list of allergen immunotherapy suppliers is available at allergy. How often are venom immunotherapy injections given? Injections start with a very low dose. A small needle is used which may be uncomfortable, but not very painful.

Doses are gradually increased on a regular usually weekly basis, until an effective maintenance dose is reached. It may take two to six months to reach an effective maintenance dose. Once the maintenance dose is reached, injections are usually administered monthly in a medical facility under supervision.

Patients should stay at the medical facility for observation for minutes after a venom immunotherapy injection has been given. In some cases, after the treatment has been maintained for two or more years, the time interval between doses may be extended. This can be discussed with the supervising specialist.

If the injections are given in a local medical practice, periodic review with the responsible Allergy specialist should continue.

Are there any potential reactions to venom immunotherapy injections? Patients are normally advised to: Remain in their doctor's surgery for at least minutes after injection. Avoid exercising for at least three hours after treatment.

Avoid some heart and blood pressure medications including beta blockers such as metoprolol or propranolol. It is important to talk to your doctor if starting any new medications while on venom immunotherapy. Taking a non-sedating oral antihistamine before the injection may reduce the risk of side effects and may be recommended by your doctor.

Is there anything you can do to reduce the side effects from venom immunotherapy? Simple precautions may reduce the risk: Asthma should be stable before treatment starts. If an asthma flare occurs during treatment, the injection should be deferred until it is back under control.

You must tell your doctor if you develop itchy eyes, itchy nose, itchy throat or chest, increased wheezing or if you feel light-headed or faint after an injection. You should never put up with these symptoms.

MINI REVIEW article To support allergy and immunology research go to www. If an asthma flare occurs during treatment, the injection should be deferred until it is back under control. In general, exposure to venom from bites and stings causes redness, swelling and itching. Prim Care. Mamessier E, Birnbaum J, Dupuy P, Vervloet D, Magnan. This part of the treatment, known as the buildup phase, usually lasts between 3 and 6 months.
Venom Immunotherapy (VIT) Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ)

Kernerman: After being diagnosed with a bee or wasp allergy, you can pretty much start on venom immunotherapy as soon as can be arranged. If there are no insurance restrictions, this can mean within days of being tested and having the diagnosis confirmed.

Kernerman: There are two techniques that we use for the build-up phase of venom immunotherapy. The first, often referred to as conventional build-up, involves receiving venom shot s every days for 15 shot visits. Each venom shot visit takes approximately 40 minutes including the minute wait after the shot is received.

The second, called rush venom immunotherapy, completes the build-up phase over two days. Kernerman: For the conventional build-up, it generally takes months range 1 ½ — 5 months to reach the maintenance level.

For rush build-up, the maintenance level is reached within two days. Kernerman: Maintenance venom injections are generally given once every six weeks.

Kernerman: The maintenance phase typically lasts for years. This can vary given specific, individual circumstances. Kernerman: If you want to be protected, and you are going to do conventional venom immunotherapy build-up, you would want to start the process by January or February.

For rush therapy, ideally, you would start no later than March. Kernerman: Not too long ago, I diagnosed an 8-year-old boy with a wasp sting allergy. He was prescribed injectable epinephrine and scheduled to start on venom immunotherapy.

The boy, who now had an epinephrine injector, administered this to his father and prevented further progression of the reaction.

They subsequently both did rush venom immunotherapy together and are now protected. They have been stung since being desensitized and have had no significant reactions. Learn More About Venom Immunotherapy. So, reach out to a local medical provider today about your treatment options.

Steven Kernerman. This website uses cookies so that we can provide you with the best user experience possible. Cookie information is stored in your browser and performs functions such as recognising you when you return to our website and helping our team to understand which sections of the website you find most interesting and useful.

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This means that every time you visit this website you will need to enable or disable cookies again. Author: Healthwise Staff. Medical Review: E. This information does not replace the advice of a doctor.

Healthwise, Incorporated, disclaims any warranty or liability for your use of this information. Your use of this information means that you agree to the Terms of Use.

Learn how we develop our content. To learn more about Healthwise, visit Healthwise. Healthwise, Healthwise for every health decision, and the Healthwise logo are trademarks of Healthwise, Incorporated.

ca Network. It looks like your browser does not have JavaScript enabled. Please turn on JavaScript and try again. Main Content Related to Conditions Allergies Disease and Injury Prevention Immune System.

Important Phone Numbers. Topic Contents Treatment Overview What To Expect Why It Is Done How Well It Works Risks References.

Top of the page. Immunotherapy for Allergies to Insect Stings. Treatment Overview Immunotherapy for insect sting allergies is a series of allergy shots given to reduce your sensitivity to allergens that cause an allergic reaction.

Immunotherapy is available to treat allergies to stings from: Honeybees. Yellow jackets. Paper wasps. Fire ants. footnote 1 Depending on your situation, your doctor may recommend rush immunotherapy. For more information about what to consider if you are thinking about having immunotherapy, see: Allergies: Should I Take Shots for Insect Sting Allergies?

What To Expect Allergy shots are usually given in a doctor's office. Why It Is Done Immunotherapy can prevent life-threatening reactions and also reduce anxiety associated with insect stings.

footnote 1 It is not clear exactly how effective the protection against future stings is after the treatment has ended. Risks Allergy shots are safe if the shots are given correctly. Allergy shots may not be right for you if you: Have an autoimmune disease , such as lupus.

Are taking beta-blockers, such as propranolol Inderal, for example , which are often used to treat heart conditions, glaucoma , migraine headaches , and high blood pressure.

Are taking ACE inhibitors, such as captopril or lisinopril Prinivil, Zestoretic, or Zestril, for example , which are often prescribed for high blood pressure and a variety of heart conditions.

Talk to your doctor first about the potential risks of immunotherapy. Are not able to communicate about reactions to shots.

Most doctors do not give allergy shots to children younger than age 5. References Citations Golden DBK, et al. Stinging insect hypersensitivity: A practice parameter update Annals of Allergy Asthma Immunology , 1 : 28— Accessed February 3, Credits Current as of: February 27, Author: Healthwise Staff Medical Review: E.

Current as of: February 27,

Priya Bansal MD

This reduces the effectiveness of VIT. If you stop treatment early or miss doses you may still be at risk of a serious reaction if you are stung in the future. Protection from VIT lasts for a long time after you complete the treatment.

Some studies have found people were still protected 7 years after treatment finished. Not many studies have looked at how long protection lasts beyond 7 years.

It is possible that protection could wear off over time. You should still take steps to avoid being stung. This may include wearing protective clothing and avoiding areas where insects are common. VIT involves having injection s of small amounts of the venom allergen into the layer of tissue just underneath the skin.

This is called a subcutaneous injection. The first phase of treatment involves frequent injections. The injections are gradually increased in strength. Exact schedules vary between clinics, but t his often happens over weeks.

D oses can be spread over a shorter or longer period. Y ou may need to be given more than one injection on your first few visits depending on the schedule your allergy specialist recommends. The injections will be at the full maintenance dose , which will be the highest dose reached during the up-dosing phase.

They will gradually get further apart until you only need one injection, usually every 4 -8 weeks. You will normally need to continue with the injections for 3 years. Occasionally treatment may need to continue for longer. Your GP can refer you to an allergy specialist if they think that VIT would be a suitable treatment for you.

VIT is available at several specialist centres in the UK. You can find a clinic in your area from the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology BSACI. You may be a good candidate if: —.

VIT is suitable for children and adults. There is not very much safety data on its use in children under the age of 5. VIT would not usually be started if you are pregnant. It may be possible to continue treatment during pregnancy if you are already in the maintenance phase as long as you stay well.

Some medical conditions and medicines may put you at risk of harm or interfere with how well the VIT works.

Sometimes VIT may not be recommended. Speak to your doctor or allergy specialist if you have: —. Always tell your allergy specialist about any medicines including over the counter, herbal or supplements you are taking before starting VIT.

You will usually be advised to take some precautions to reduce the chances of an allergic reaction to the VIT. You must also let your clinic know if you have been unwell in the 24 hours before your appointment. You may have reactions to the treatment.

It is quite common to have some redness, swelling or itching at the site of the injection. Antihistamines are usually given to help reduce this type of reaction. People often say they feel tired or have headaches after their injections.

This is normal and usually passes quickly. Every injection is given in a hospital setting. You will normally be asked to stay for minutes after each injection. If you have any side effects after you leave the hospital, you should always report these to your doctor.

If you think you may be having anaphylaxis, you will need to get immediate medical help. Read more about anaphylaxis and what to do in an emergency.

During the up-dosing phase of VIT, you will need to continue carrying your emergency medical kit, including two adrenaline auto-injectors at all times. Once you reach the maintenance phase of VIT, your allergy specialist will advise you about whether you can stop carrying your emergency medical kit.

People who may need to keep carrying their kit include: —. This will depend on how much time has passed and the stage that you are at in your VIT. Most insect stings in America come from wasps, hornets, yellowjackets and honeybees.

Fire ants have now become a substantial health hazard in the southern United States. All these creatures make and inject venom through their stingers.

Our allergy testing helps identify your unique triggering insect allergens. Insect allergies are caused by the injected venom and the stinger should be removed quickly with your fingernail. Local reactions at the sting area are not necessarily allergic in nature.

When symptoms like hives, flushing, and itching are outside of the area of the sting, immediate medical attention is needed for these truly allergic symptoms.

In rare cases, these symptoms may lead to anaphylaxis. Insect allergies are caused by your body producing antibodies to insect venom when you are stung. Then the next time you are stung, your body overreacts to the venom and causes release of chemicals like histamine from your immune cells.

These chemicals cause your insect allergy symptoms. Venom immunotherapy or insect allergy shots help desensitize your body to your unique triggering venom allergens, to reduce your overall allergy inflammation and symptoms. The injections probably work by causing your body to produce a blocking antibody which dampens your overactive immune response during venom exposure.

All your shots are given at a dose that is just enough to stimulate your immune system but will not cause a full-blown allergy attack. Our specialists give you a tiny amount of venom solution just under your skin in a controlled, safe medical environment.

We gradually increase the dose over time during the build-up phase of your treatment. You may have weekly injections during this phase. During your maintenance phase you may have injections about each month.

Some patients can stop maintenance therapy after a while, but others need to continue for longer treatment times.

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