Category: Diet

Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones

Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones

Stress reduction strategies studies are needed to Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones how long the muscle Nourishing pre-workout dishes effect lasts and how Antispssmodic relaxation would be needed to expedite stone passage, the researchers Antispasmodiv. Its emergence as the definitive initial Kodney modality for urolithiasis Antiapasmodic allow intravenous Antispasmodjc to be reserved for therapeutic planning in complex stone cases. Refer a Patient. Mayo Clinic on Incontinence - Mayo Clinic Press Mayo Clinic on Incontinence The Essential Diabetes Book - Mayo Clinic Press The Essential Diabetes Book Mayo Clinic on Hearing and Balance - Mayo Clinic Press Mayo Clinic on Hearing and Balance FREE Mayo Clinic Diet Assessment - Mayo Clinic Press FREE Mayo Clinic Diet Assessment Mayo Clinic Health Letter - FREE book - Mayo Clinic Press Mayo Clinic Health Letter - FREE book.

Video

The Top SUPERFOODS for the Kidneys—Explained by Dr. Berg The prevalence of Stonez kidney Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones Antispasmosic increasing in women and with increasing age. The risk of Suppress appetite naturally kidney Stress reduction strategies is Suppldments to 15 percent in the United States, although this number is trending higher. The characteristic cramping and intermittent abdominal and flank pain occur as kidney stones travel within the urinary tract. The pain is often accompanied by hematuria, nausea or vomiting, and malaise; fever and chills may also be present. However, stones in the renal pelvis may be asymptomatic.

Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones -

Kidney stones are made from hard crystals that accumulate in the kidneys when there is too much solid waste in the urine and not enough liquid to wash it out. It is estimated that about one in 10 people will have a kidney stone at some point in their lives.

Several years ago, Cima and Brian Eisner, who co-directs the Kidney Stone Program at MGH and is also an author of the paper, began thinking about ways to improve the treatment of kidney stones.

While some larger stones require surgery, the usual treatment plan is simply to wait for the stones to pass, which takes an average of 10 days. Patients are given painkillers as well as an oral medication that is meant to help relax the ureter, but studies have offered conflicting evidence on whether this drug actually helps.

There are no FDA-approved oral therapies for kidney stones and ureteral dilation. Cima and Eisner thought that delivering a muscle relaxant directly to the ureter might offer a better alternative. Most of the pain from passing a kidney stone arises from cramps and inflammation in the ureter as the stones pass through the narrow tube, so relaxing the muscles surrounding the tube could help ease this passage.

The researchers first set out to identify drugs that might work well when delivered directly to the ureter. They selected 18 drugs used to treat conditions such as high blood pressure or glaucoma and exposed them to human ureteral cells grown in a lab dish, where they could measure how much the drugs relaxed the smooth muscle cells.

They hypothesized that if they delivered such drugs directly to the ureter, they could get a much bigger relaxation effect than by delivering such drugs orally, while minimizing possible harm to the rest of the body. Next, the researchers used intensive computational processing to individually analyze the relaxation responses of nearly 1 billion cells after drug exposure.

They identified two drugs that worked especially well, and found that they worked even better when given together. One of these is nifedipine, a calcium channel blocker used to treat high blood pressure, and the other is a type of drug known as a ROCK rho kinase inhibitor, which is used to treat glaucoma.

The researchers tested various doses of this combination of drugs in ureters removed from pigs, and showed that they could dramatically reduce the frequency and length of contractions of the ureter. Tests in live pigs also showed that the treatment nearly eliminated ureteral contractions.

For these experiments, the researchers delivered the drugs using a cystoscope, which is very similar to a catheter but has a small fiber optic channel that can connect to a camera or lens. More studies are needed to determine how long the muscle relaxing effect lasts and how much relaxation would be needed to expedite stone passage, the researchers say.

They are now launching a startup company, Fluidity Medicine, to continue developing the technology for possible testing in human patients. In addition to treating kidney stones, this approach could also be useful for relaxing the ureter to help doctors insert a ureteral stent.

It could also help when placing any other kind of instrument, such as an endoscope, in the ureter. The research was funded by the MIT Institute of Medical Engineering and Science Broshy Fellowship, the MIT Deshpande Center for Technological Innovation, the Koch Institute Support core Grant from the National Cancer Institute, and the National Institutes of Health.

MIT researchers have developed a new treatment that could help ease the pain caused by passing kidney stones, reports CBS Boston. Abdominal ultrasonography has limited use in the diagnosis and management of urolithiasis. Although ultrasonography is readily available, quickly performed and sensitive to renal calculi, it is virtually blind to ureteral stones sensitivity: 19 percent , which are far more likely to be symptomatic than renal calculi.

The ultrasound examination is highly sensitive to hydronephrosis, which may be a manifestation of ureteral obstruction, but it is frequently limited in defining the level or nature of obstruction.

It is also useful in assessing renal parenchymal processes, which may mimic renal colic. Abdominal ultrasonography is the preferred imaging modality for the evaluation of gynecologic pain, which is more common than urolithiasis in women of child-bearing age.

Plain-film radiography of the kidneys, ureters and bladder KUB may be sufficient to document the size and location of radiopaque urinary calculi. Stones that contain calcium, such as calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate stones, are easiest to detect by radiography.

Less radiopaque calculi, such as pure uric acid stones and stones composed mainly of cystine or magnesium ammonium phosphate, may be difficult, if not impossible, to detect on plain-film radiographs. Unfortunately, even radiopaque calculi are frequently obscured by stool or bowel gas, and ureteral stones overlying the bony pelvis or transverse processes of vertebrae are particularly difficult to identify.

Furthermore, nonurologic radiopacities, such as calcified mesenteric lymph nodes, gallstones, stool and phleboliths calcified pelvic veins , may be misinterpreted as stones.

Although 90 percent of urinary calculi have historically been considered to be radiopaque, the sensitivity and specificity of KUB radiography alone remain poor sensitivity: 45 to 59 percent; specificity: 71 to 77 percent. Intravenous pyelography has been considered the standard imaging modality for urinary tract calculi.

The intravenous pyelogram provides useful information about the stone size, location, radiodensity and its environment calyceal anatomy, degree of obstruction , as well as the contralateral renal unit function, anomalies.

Intravenous pyelography is widely available, and its interpretation is well standardized. With this imaging modality, ureteral calculi can be easily distinguished from nonurologic radiopacities. The accuracy of intravenous pyelography can be maximized with proper bowel preparation, and the adverse renal effects of contrast media may be minimized by ensuring that the patient is well hydrated.

Unfortunately, these preparatory steps require time and often cannot be accomplished when a patient presents in an emergency situation. Compared with abdominal ultrasonography and KUB radiography, intravenous pyelography has greater sensitivity 64 to 87 percent and specificity 92 to 94 percent for the detection of renal calculi.

The contrast media used in intravenous pyelography carry the potential for adverse effects. Serum creatinine levels must be measured before contrast media are administered. Although a creatinine level greater then 1. These risks may be minimized by adequately hydrating the patient, minimizing the amount of contrast material that is infused, and maximizing the time interval between consecutive contrast studies.

Nonetheless, it is prudent to avoid the use of contrast media when an alternative imaging modality can provide equivalent information. The role of nonionic contrast media continues to evolve. Use of these materials may decrease reactions such as nausea, flushing and bradycardia, but there is no apparent reduction of anaphylactic reactions or nephrotoxicity.

A new concern has emerged because of reports of fatal metabolic acidosis after radiologic procedures using intravenous contrast media in patients with diabetes with preexisting renal failure and who were taking metformin Glucophage. The basic mechanism of this interaction involves impairment of renal metformin excretion by contrast media—induced nephrotoxicity that results in elevated serum metformin levels.

Food and Drug Administration is to discontinue metformin at the time of or before a procedure using contrast material and to withhold the drug for 48 hours after the procedure.

Metformin therapy is reinstituted only after renal function has been reevaluated and found to be normal.

Noncontrast helical CT is being used increasingly in the initial assessment of renal colic. Its sensitivity 95 to percent and specificity 94 to 96 percent suggest that it may definitively exclude stones in patients with abdominal pain.

The estimated sizes of renal calculi determined using this imaging technique vary slightly from those obtained with KUB radiography.

Noncontrast helical CT is generally more expensive than intravenous pyelography, but the increased cost is certainly balanced by more definitive, faster diagnosis.

In the future, noncontrast helical CT may become the imaging technique of choice and the standard of care. Its emergence as the definitive initial imaging modality for urolithiasis may allow intravenous pyelography to be reserved for therapeutic planning in complex stone cases.

The management of patients with urolithiasis is becoming increasingly well defined. An algorithm for the initial management of radiologically confirmed stones is presented in Figure 2.

The first step is to identify patients who require emergency urologic consultation. For example, sepsis in conjunction with an obstructing stone represents a true emergency.

In patients with sepsis, adequate drainage of the system must be established with all possible speed by means of percutaneous nephrostomy or retrograde ureteral stent insertion. Other emergency conditions are anuria and acute renal failure secondary to bilateral obstruction, or unilateral obstruction in a patient with a solitary functioning kidney.

Hospital admission may be required for patients who are unable to maintain oral intake because of refractory nausea, debilitated medical status or extremes of age, or for patients with severe pain that does not respond to outpatient narcotic therapy.

Placement of a retrograde ureteral stent or percutaneous nephrostomy tube may be a useful temporizing measure in patients with refractory symptoms. For all other patients, ambulatory management of renal calculi should be adequate. Complications of urolithiasis are listed in Table 3.

The cornerstones of ambulatory management are adequate analgesia, timely urologic consultation and close follow-up. Numerous medical strategies have been attempted to control colic, which can be attributed to ureteral spasm.

Although narcotics such as codeine, morphine and meperidine Demerol are effective in suppressing pain, they do nothing to treat its underlying cause, and they have the side effects of dependence and disorientation.

As a result of combined anti-inflammatory and spasmolytic effects, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs NSAIDs such as aspirin, diclofenac Voltaren and ibuprofen e.

Of these agents, ketorolac Toradol merits special mention. In one emergency department study, the narcotic-like analgesic effects of this agent were superior to the effects of meperidine. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors, a new class of NSAIDs, may prove to be effective agents in the management of renal colic.

Theoretically, these drugs do not impair platelet function. To date, however, there have been no reports of their use in patients with renal colic. At present, an effective approach to outpatient management is to use both an oral narcotic drug and an oral NSAID.

Patients are instructed not to take NSAIDs for three days before anticipated extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy; they are also told to avoid taking aspirin for seven days before the procedure.

Spasmolytic medications, such as calcium channel blockers and glucagon, have no value in the management of acute colic. After emergency situations have been ruled out and adequate analgesia has been achieved, the next step is to formulate a strategy for managing the stone.

Clinical experience with urolithiasis has been refined with statistical analysis to provide sound principles for definitive management. The likelihood that a ureteral stone will pass appears to be determined by its size i. Stones less than 5 mm in size should be given an opportunity to pass. Patients can be advised that stones less than 4 mm in size generally pass within one to two weeks.

With stones of this size, 80 percent of patients require no intervention beyond analgesia. Patients with a radiopaque ureteral stone who elect a conservative approach should be advised to have regular follow-up KUB radiographs at one- to two-week intervals.

They should also strain their urine to capture stones or stone fragments, because stone composition provides important information for the prevention of future stones. Patients should be cautioned to seek immediate medical attention if they develop signs of sepsis. The principal message should be that medical surveillance must be continued until stone passage is documented.

Although unlikely with small calculi, asymptomatic complete ureteral obstruction may destroy renal function in as little as six to eight weeks. As stones increase in size beyond 4 mm, the need for urologic intervention increases exponentially. Referral to a urologist is indicated for patients with a stone greater than 5 mm in size.

Referral is also indicated for patients with a ureteral stone that has not passed after two to four weeks of observation.

The complication rate for ureteral calculi has been reported to almost triple to 20 percent when symptomatic stones are left untreated beyond four weeks.

Renal stones, which are generally asymptomatic, may be followed conservatively. However, patients can be advised that about 50 percent of small renal calculi become symptomatic within five years of detection.

Persons in some occupations, most notably airplane pilots, are not permitted to work with even an asymptomatic renal stone, for fear of the unpredictable onset of incapacitating pain while they are involved in a crucial task.

These patients obviously require early definitive therapy. Staghorn renal calculi, which are frequently the result of, and a persistent focus for, chronic infection are clearly associated with renal damage. Renal calculi less than 2 cm in size can generally be treated with extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy.

Stones in a lower pole calyx are an exception, as they are associated with poor clearance rates after extra corporeal shock wave lithotripsy, and 1 cm is the generally recommended upper limit for this treatment. There is a problem with information submitted for this request.

Sign up for free and stay up to date on research advancements, health tips, current health topics, and expertise on managing health. Click here for an email preview. Error Email field is required. Error Include a valid email address. To provide you with the most relevant and helpful information, and understand which information is beneficial, we may combine your email and website usage information with other information we have about you.

If you are a Mayo Clinic patient, this could include protected health information. If we combine this information with your protected health information, we will treat all of that information as protected health information and will only use or disclose that information as set forth in our notice of privacy practices.

You may opt-out of email communications at any time by clicking on the unsubscribe link in the e-mail. You'll soon start receiving the latest Mayo Clinic health information you requested in your inbox.

Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.

Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press. This content does not have an English version. This content does not have an Arabic version. Drugs and Supplements Phenazopyridine Oral Route. Sections Description and Brand Names Before Using Proper Use Precautions Side Effects.

Products and services. Precautions Drug information provided by: Merative, Micromedex ® Check with your doctor if symptoms such as bloody urine, difficult or painful urination, frequent urge to urinate, or sudden decrease in the amount of urine appear or become worse while you are taking this medicine.

Thank you for subscribing!

Drug information provided by: Merative, Antispasnodic ®. Renew Energy and Vitality citrate is used to treat a kidney stone Stress reduction strategies called renal tubular Antispasmodid. It is also used to prevent kidney stones that may occur with gout. Potassium citrate is a urinary alkalinizer. It works by making the urine more alkaline less acid. There is a problem with information submitted for this request. Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones

Author: Mirr

2 thoughts on “Antispasmodic Supplements for Kidney Stones

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com