Category: Diet

Sports dietary analysis

Sports dietary analysis

Sports Basel [Internet]. Taking a broad diftary Sports dietary analysis the sports anapysis sector, it is unclear Sports dietary analysis to the appropriate focus when aiming to design and produce products to bring to the sport and exercise market. Self-determination theory: its application to health behavior and complementarity with motivational interviewing.

Sports dietary analysis -

There is a suggestion that low GI foods may be useful before exercise to provide a more sustained energy release, although evidence is not convincing in terms of any resulting performance benefit.

Moderate to high GI foods and fluids may be the most beneficial during exercise and in the early recovery period. However, it is important to remember the type and timing of food eaten should be tailored to personal preferences and to maximise the performance of the particular sport in which the person is involved.

A high-carbohydrate meal 3 to 4 hours before exercise is thought to have a positive effect on performance. A small snack one to 2 hours before exercise may also benefit performance. It is important to ensure good hydration prior to an event. Consuming approximately ml of fluid in the 2 to 4 hours prior to an event may be a good general strategy to take.

Some people may experience a negative response to eating close to exercise. A meal high in fat, protein or fibre is likely to increase the risk of digestive discomfort.

It is recommended that meals just before exercise should be high in carbohydrates as they do not cause gastrointestinal upset. Liquid meal supplements may also be appropriate, particularly for athletes who suffer from pre-event nerves. For athletes involved in events lasting less than 60 minutes in duration, a mouth rinse with a carbohydrate beverage may be sufficient to help improve performance.

Benefits of this strategy appear to relate to effects on the brain and central nervous system. During exercise lasting more than 60 minutes, an intake of carbohydrate is required to top up blood glucose levels and delay fatigue.

Current recommendations suggest 30 to 60 g of carbohydrate is sufficient, and can be in the form of lollies, sports gels, sports drinks, low-fat muesli and sports bars or sandwiches with white bread. It is important to start your intake early in exercise and to consume regular amounts throughout the exercise period.

It is also important to consume regular fluid during prolonged exercise to avoid dehydration. Sports drinks, diluted fruit juice and water are suitable choices. For people exercising for more than 4 hours, up to 90 grams of carbohydrate per hour is recommended.

Carbohydrate foods and fluids should be consumed after exercise, particularly in the first one to 2 hours after exercise. While consuming sufficient total carbohydrate post-exercise is important, the type of carbohydrate source might also be important, particularly if a second training session or event will occur less than 8 hours later.

In these situations, athletes should choose carbohydrate sources with a high GI for example white bread, white rice, white potatoes in the first half hour or so after exercise.

This should be continued until the normal meal pattern resumes. Since most athletes develop a fluid deficit during exercise, replenishment of fluids post-exercise is also a very important consideration for optimal recovery. It is recommended that athletes consume 1. Protein is an important part of a training diet and plays a key role in post-exercise recovery and repair.

Protein needs are generally met and often exceeded by most athletes who consume sufficient energy in their diet. The amount of protein recommended for sporting people is only slightly higher than that recommended for the general public. For athletes interested in increasing lean mass or muscle protein synthesis, consumption of a high-quality protein source such as whey protein or milk containing around 20 to 25 g protein in close proximity to exercise for example, within the period immediately to 2 hours after exercise may be beneficial.

As a general approach to achieving optimal protein intakes, it is suggested to space out protein intake fairly evenly over the course of a day, for instance around 25 to 30 g protein every 3 to 5 hours, including as part of regular meals.

There is currently a lack of evidence to show that protein supplements directly improve athletic performance. Therefore, for most athletes, additional protein supplements are unlikely to improve sport performance.

A well-planned diet will meet your vitamin and mineral needs. Supplements will only be of any benefit if your diet is inadequate or you have a diagnosed deficiency, such as an iron or calcium deficiency. There is no evidence that extra doses of vitamins improve sporting performance.

Nutritional supplements can be found in pill, tablet, capsule, powder or liquid form, and cover a broad range of products including:. Before using supplements, you should consider what else you can do to improve your sporting performance — diet, training and lifestyle changes are all more proven and cost effective ways to improve your performance.

Relatively few supplements that claim performance benefits are supported by sound scientific evidence. Use of vitamin and mineral supplements is also potentially dangerous. Supplements should not be taken without the advice of a qualified health professional.

The ethical use of sports supplements is a personal choice by athletes, and it remains controversial. If taking supplements, you are also at risk of committing an anti-doping rule violation no matter what level of sport you play.

Dehydration can impair athletic performance and, in extreme cases, may lead to collapse and even death. Drinking plenty of fluids before, during and after exercise is very important. Fluid intake is particularly important for events lasting more than 60 minutes, of high intensity or in warm conditions.

Water is a suitable drink, but sports drinks may be required, especially in endurance events or warm climates. Sports drinks contain some sodium, which helps absorption. While insufficient hydration is a problem for many athletes, excess hydration may also be potentially dangerous.

In rare cases, athletes might consume excessive amounts of fluids that dilute the blood too much, causing a low blood concentration of sodium. This condition is called hyponatraemia, which can potentially lead to seizures, collapse, coma or even death if not treated appropriately.

Consuming fluids at a level of to ml per hour of exercise might be a suitable starting point to avoid dehydration and hyponatraemia, although intake should ideally be customised to individual athletes, considering variable factors such as climate, sweat rates and tolerance.

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Table 2. Seventy percent of participants reported altering their routine surrounding exercise with the intention to improve their recovery. Figure 2. When asked to rank the importance of various features of a product for exercise performance or recovery, nutritional profile was ranked as the most important with an average rating of 3.

Table 3. Importance of product features and scientific proof on nutrition product choice using a scale of 1 not important to 4 crucial. Whole food type nutritional products received the most first preference selections and most top 3 selections when presented with a number of popular performance and recovery products on the market Table 4.

Whole foods received and first preferences for recovery and performance products, respectively. Powder-based products received the second most number one preferences in recovery and performance categories with 56 top preference selections in the recovery category and 58 top preference selections in the performance category.

When presented with a list of common food products which often carry performance or recovery claims, a smoothie or juice option received top three rankings, however a hot food option received the most top rankings with participants responding that it was their favourite of the food options presented.

Table 4. While there has been substantial research advancement in efficacy testing of potential product prototypes 37 ; there is often considerable difficulty when it comes to translation of theoretically efficacious product prototypes to successful adoption amongst consumers In order to achieve this, an evidence-based needs analysis of target market must be evaluated to inform the conversion from food prototype to successful product.

The data gathered from this study has identified a clear disconnect between certain aspects of current practice of this population and advised evidence-based best-practice. While effective sports nutrition solutions to provide support to post exercise recovery are deemed of critical importance to these end-users; we detected that there is a clear disconnect between the current practice of end-users and the recommended scientific best-practice within the topic.

There is also undoubtedly a desire for more food-based solutions to be developed, yet it is clear from current practice that supplementation still represents a considerable majority of the sports nutrition products produced and consumed Future ventures should prioritise the development of fortified and functional food alternatives as evidenced in findings of this research study.

It is critical to gain a quantifiable understanding of what aspects of physiological function this population prioritise as being important to support both their health and athletic performance.

To the best of the authors knowledge this is the first study to analyse the specific product claims and attributes which athletes and active individuals prioritise when it comes to selecting sports nutrition products.

This study demonstrates for the first time that post-exercise recovery is the most sought-after sport and exercise nutrition product claim with almost 3 in 4 participants ranking muscular recovery as one of their top three priorities, and one quarter ranking it as their top priority.

Exercise-induced muscle damage EIMD is wide ranging in its prevalence with 7 in 10 participants reporting frequently experiencing muscle stiffness or pain post exercise. EIMD is caused by unaccustomed strenuous exercise particularly when such exercise is at high intensity or contains high eccentric loading 40 , Over half of participants, reported experiencing stiffness or pain caused by EIMD at least once per week, highlighting the magnitude of this issue and the urgent need for an evidence-based food solution.

Using appropriate methods to recover from EIMD allows athletes and active individuals to achieve the greatest possible adaptation to strenuous exercise through allowing for increased training frequency and also reduced the time spent in a state of compromised muscle function To enhance recovery after exercise, evidence suggests that protein supports muscle adaptation, and polyphenol-rich foods like tart cherry juice can be effective nutritional strategies to improve recovery from muscle soreness and damage 42 , Improving both endurance and strength through the use of nutritional products followed closely as important product claims prioritised by this population ranking them second and third respectively in terms of product claim importance The emergence of food forms such as isotonic sports drinks, gels and shots have attempted been developed to provide in-competition carbohydrate fuelling options, further innovation is duly warranted in this area.

While protein ingestion coupled with resistance training improves strength and power adaptation in the long term 44 , 45 ; improving acute strength and power performance through nutritional means is a decidedly more difficult challenge.

Caffeine shows considerable efficacy in this regard 46 , and also in improving acute endurance performance 47 , however issues relating to dosages, habituation and genetic variance in response 48 mean that achieving an optimal ergogenic effect may prove challenging for the athlete.

Creatine monohydrate supplementation also provides potential for an ergogenic effect, increasing short term strength and power performance 49 , 50 , however doses, particularly during loading phases appear achievable via supplementation and not by dietary means Despite this research being carried out during the covid pandemic which likely placed greater emphasis on maintaining health and immunity, this product claim was less prioritised in comparison with muscle recovery, enhancing strength and enhancing endurance.

This strongly suggests that when it comes to nutrition and dietary interventions this population of athletes and active individuals prioritise seeking products that can have a direct impact on sporting performance rather than products that help maintain health and wellbeing exclusively.

Given the considerable risk of absence from training and competition associated with illness and infection surrounding major sporting competition, this poses a considerable under prioritisation within this population 51 , Due to the lack of regulation of the sports nutrition market, along with the recent growth in the industry, a considerable level of scepticism over the use of sports nutrition products has emerged in recent years 53 , Particularly, the prevalence of mislabelling and contamination of sports supplements has led to a notable movement away from advocating for the use of sports supplements and towards a food first approach to sports nutrition Within the wider food industry there has been considerable improvement within regulation of health claims of food products in recent years with the European Food Safety Authority and the European Commission introducing regulations on Nutrition and Health claims in [Regulation EC No.

Establishing a minimum standard of scientific evidence underpinning these claims through regulation is a priority This is now extending into the sports nutrition sector with the development of the Australian Institute of Sport ABCD classification of sports foods and supplements Australian Institute of Sport and the International Olympic Council releasing their consensus statement on dietary supplements and their claims It has been shown previously that scientific evidence backed health claims influence overall perception, food choice and willingness to pay 58 This finding highlights the importance of a rigorous scientific process in new product development practice for sports nutrition food products, and also emphasises the importance of regulating sports nutrition efficacy claims to protect the consumer from spurious or fraudulent efficacy statements.

Even when sports nutrition products have well established science-backed efficacy claims, risk of inadvertent product contamination is another particular issue within the sports nutrition industry. Paired with regulation of product claims, recommendation of third-party testing of sports nutrition products and their batches to ensure products contain the stated ingredients only and in the stated dosages is essential for the safety of end-users.

Along with this education of end-users around the risks of supplement contamination and the importance of third-party testing is essential for the future of product regulation Supplementation type products represent a majority of the market share for sports nutrition products 1.

These findings closely align with those reported in the meta-analysis of Knapik et al. One notable distinction between the results of this study and those presented in Knapik et al.

This data was collected in Ireland which has an increased prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency and deficiency This study was conducted during the covid pandemic during which increased focus was placed on vitamin D supplementation to support immune health Given the growing knowledge surrounding the importance of avoiding vitamin D deficiency in athletes this is likely a positive development When participants reported the methods employed to improve recovery post-exercise the most commonly used methods were static stretching and foam rolling.

Research into the effects of static stretching on recovery from EIMD have shown little to no effect on recovery of muscle strength or muscle soreness 65 , while foam rolling has been shown to have little effect, other than recovery of range of motion 66 , Despite the relative importance to the individual, the management of recovery post exercise appears to be largely misunderstood.

Promotion of good sleep hygiene 68 and the incorporation of appropriate changes to daily nutrition practices 42 during periods of intense exercise should be prioritised for the improvement of recovery over practices such as static stretching and foam rolling.

Our research indicates that protein supplementation was the most employed supplementation strategy relating to sporting performance or recovery in this population. While increased protein intake has been shown to positively impact muscle protein turnover and as a result augment the regeneration of muscle tissue post exercise and promote optimal muscle and strength gains particularly during resistance training 69 — 71 , it remains unclear as to whether protein supplementation improves the time course of skeletal muscle recovery.

A systematic review and meta-analysis showed little effect of protein supplements on recovery from symptoms of EIMD including muscle strength and muscle soreness Another meta-analysis showed that whey protein supplementation had a small to medium temporal ergogenic effect on recovery of muscle function post resistance exercise training, however less than half of the included studies reported a beneficial overall effect Although increasing protein intake will undoubtedly enhance adaptation to resistance training for most individuals, given this evidence, it cannot be relied upon as a primary method to curb the issue of post exercise discomfort and reductions in performance capability in the aftermath of intense exercise.

Alternative solutions should be sought to enhance recovery from EIMD such as those discussed in the key review of this topic by Harty et al.

A particularly underutilised avenue in the sports nutrition sector appears to be that of bioactive functional foods which provide physiological benefit beyond that of their macro or micronutrient content.

Although there is a strong uptake in the use of caffeine-based functional foods, particularly coffee, the majority of participants in this study reported not using such functional foods at all.

Only 24 participants reported using polyphenol-based functional food products such as tart cherry products, green tea and dark chocolate, and 14 participants reported the use of dietary nitrate based functional foods such as beetroot juice. While underutilised, the use of polyphenols for sporting performance 74 , recovery of muscle soreness and muscle strength 75 as well as providing health benefits 76 , 77 has been the focus of recent research with much of the research showing performance, recovery and health benefits, although effects may be small and precise dosage required requires further investigation.

Given the myriad of food sources naturally rich in polyphenols 78 , and their demonstratable capacity to address key priorities of athletes and active individuals, there appears significant scope for development of polyphenol rich functional foods for the sports nutrition market.

The efficacy for the use of dietary nitrate functional food products, particularly beetroot juice is also well established with meta-analyses showing clear benefits in endurance capacity 79 , The emergence of functional foods has been a notable trend in the wider food industry in recent years and it is clear there is strong potential for this to extend to the sport and exercise nutrition sector, however challenges translating research to engaging strategies to support consumer uptake must be addressed Nutritional profile was voted as the most important factor affecting a purchasing decision of a sports nutrition product, followed closely by taste.

Although there is a fast-growing interest in sustainability in the wider food systems, the sustainability of a sports nutrition product received the lowest mean rating of features presented in this question.

This suggests that athletes and active individuals are unlikely to be willing to compromise on other factors in favour of having an improved environmental impact, especially with regards nutritional profile and taste.

However, product sustainability still has some importance to this population and may be a viable selling point of a product once other key factors are intact Gender appears to be a particularly important demographic influencer in this population with gender having a significant influence on the rank importance of taste, price, nutritional profile, ease of access and sustainability, which have been previously shown to influence the adoption of functional foods in the diet Outside of gender, competition level and time spent undertaking sport or structured physical activity may also be a factor in the food preferences of participants, particularly in the aspects of taste, ease of preparation and price 26 , 29 , Food choice in athletes is heavily influenced by the demands of the sport or exercise they are participating in, as well as the timing surrounding the exercise event As a result of this, separate questions were asked as to the types of sports nutrition product they would prefer for either performance or recovery.

A food first approach has been widely advocated for by sporting bodies as well as in three notable expert consensus statements on sports nutrition 57 , 82 , There is also clearly considerable demand for sports nutrition food products given the results of the product preference section of this study Table 4.

This approach has been shown to be particularly beneficial when it comes to protein intake and muscle protein synthesis and the resulting remodelling of muscle tissue as a result of exercise While protein supplements have shown significant benefits for athletes and healthy ageing populations 69 , 71 , 86 , and research using protein supplements has been integral to the development of protein intake guidelines for these populations, whole protein foods have been suggested to have greater beneficial impact than that of their constituent amino acid content alone Despite consumer demand and the scientific support for food-first approaches to sport and exercise nutrition, market insights note that There is evidently major potential for a significant market swing towards foods for sport and exercise in the coming years.

Although a food-first approach should be the first option for nutritional practice in sport and exercise, there is potential to include supplementation to augment this practice, particularly for nutrients which are difficult to consume in sufficient quantities from dietary sources to gain an ergogenic benefit.

This approach posits that athletes should adopt a food-first approach unless faced with one of six pre-defined scenarios which suggest supplementation may provide additional benefits Future innovations in the sports nutrition market should reflect this and prioritise whole food products where possible, reserving supplementation approaches predominantly for nutrients in which it is impossible or wholly impractical to achieve exclusively from diet.

To date there is no previously published research to the authors knowledge that addresses end-user desires for particular product forms. As previously discussed general food preference factors such as taste are of great importance to this population and as such creating products which meet the desired specifications are crucial for success in the sports nutrition market Table 3 In this online survey participants were asked to rank their most preferable food products, when provided with a list of food product types found commonly on the sports nutrition market.

This aligns considerably with the move towards a food first approach to sports nutrition as discussed above 55 , 85 Given the fruit and vegetable derived nature of underutilised bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and dietary nitrates, smoothies and juices represent a particularly interesting direction for future development with juices such as beetroot juice and tart cherry juice showing particular scientific evidence 87 , The creation of convenient and accessible hot meal solutions such as recipes and meal preparation methods for hot food, which meet the macronutrient nutritional demands of this population also appear to be in particular demand.

Participants were also asked to rank their most likely place of purchase for a sports nutrition product with supermarkets being ranked the most likely place of purchase for such products Table 5. Developing food products which combine appealing sensory factors with favourable nutritional profile could revolutionise the sports nutrition sector from a supplement focussed one, to that of a food industry.

Table 5. Descriptive data outlining preferences for place of purchase of a sports nutrition product. It is worth noting that this study was undertaken in Ireland so the results may not be fully generalisable to that of the wider athletic population.

The sporting activities of this sample, contains a considerable proportion of participants reporting engagement in random intermittent dynamic type sports such as soccer, rugby, Gaelic games and basketball which may not be representative of the sporting populations in certain areas of the world.

As a result of the convenience sampling nature of this sample it may not be fully representative of views on a population level and it is impossible to assess whether there would be a notable difference between responders and non-responders to the survey. Due to the nature of the format of the rank order questions, it was not possible to statistically compare answers against different population groups such as across gender and competition level, further research should be considered to elucidate trends of these topics across population sectors and among specific sporting sectors.

There has been both significant growth in the sports nutrition sector as well as significant progression in the scientific knowledge surrounding nutritional practices to support sport and exercise in recent years.

However, at this pivotal juncture for the sector it appears that by listening to the end user, greater efficiency and efficacy can be gained in the new product development process. In fields such as skeletal muscle recovery there are clear disparities between the current practice of athletes and active individuals and the scientific evidence of best practice.

A transition towards a food first approach in sports nutrition is vital for athletes and active individuals to achieve their goals, with the development of functional foods, particularly with the focus of muscle recovery, endurance, and strength enhancement at the forefront. This population has also shown considerable support for the scientific process in developing such products and testing their respective efficacy.

There appears to be particular enthusiasm towards beverages such as smoothies, juices and shakes as well as food products in bar or hot food format. This research merits consideration and priority in future new product developments in the sport and exercise nutrition sector.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation. The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Social Research Ethics Committee, University College Cork.

All authors contributed to the study conception, design, implementation and data-analysis. The manuscript was written by CCC and all authors contributed to and commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. This research was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, under the Food Institutional Research Measure FIRM Agreement no.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

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Does acute caffeine supplementation improve physical performance in female team-sport athletes? Evidence from a systematic review and meta-analysis. van de Walle GP, Vukovich MD. The effect of nitrate supplementation on exercise tolerance and performance: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

J Strength Cond Res. Bourke BEP, Baker DF, Braakhuis AJ. Social media as a nutrition resource for athletes: a cross-sectional survey. Evaluation of general nutrition knowledge in elite Australian athletes. Br J Nutr. Devlin BL, Belski R. Exploring general and sports nutrition and food knowledge in elite male Australian athletes.

Assessing and improving general and sports nutrition knowledge of Australian athletes view project dietary intakes, nutrition knowledge and the factors influencing dietary behaviours and food choices of professional Australian football athletes view project.

Lamarche B, Morissette É, Provencher V, Valois P. Evaluation of sports nutrition knowledge and recommendations among high school coaches. Article Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Andrews A, Wojcik JR, Boyd JM, Bowers CJ.

Sports nutrition knowledge among mid-major division i university student-athletes. J Nutr Metab. Wardenaar FC, Hoogervorst D. How sports health professionals perceive and prescribe nutritional supplements to olympic and non-Olympic athletes. Int J Environ Res Public Health.

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The effects of a nutrition education intervention on sports nutrition knowledge during a competitive season in highly trained adolescent swimmers. Effectiveness of education interventions designed to improve nutrition knowledge in athletes: a systematic review. Sports Med. Birkenhead KL, Slater G.

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Sobal J, Bisogni CA. Constructing food choice decisions. Ann Behav Med. The nutrition for sport knowledge questionnaire NSKQ : development and validation using classical test theory and Rasch analysis. Zinn C, Schofield G, Wall C. Development of a psychometrically valid and reliable sports nutrition knowledge questionnaire.

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Future innovations in the sports nutrition market should reflect this and prioritise whole food products where possible, reserving supplementation approaches predominantly for nutrients in which it is impossible or wholly impractical to achieve exclusively from diet.

To date there is no previously published research to the authors knowledge that addresses end-user desires for particular product forms. As previously discussed general food preference factors such as taste are of great importance to this population and as such creating products which meet the desired specifications are crucial for success in the sports nutrition market Table 3 In this online survey participants were asked to rank their most preferable food products, when provided with a list of food product types found commonly on the sports nutrition market.

This aligns considerably with the move towards a food first approach to sports nutrition as discussed above 55 , 85 Given the fruit and vegetable derived nature of underutilised bioactive compounds such as polyphenols and dietary nitrates, smoothies and juices represent a particularly interesting direction for future development with juices such as beetroot juice and tart cherry juice showing particular scientific evidence 87 , The creation of convenient and accessible hot meal solutions such as recipes and meal preparation methods for hot food, which meet the macronutrient nutritional demands of this population also appear to be in particular demand.

Participants were also asked to rank their most likely place of purchase for a sports nutrition product with supermarkets being ranked the most likely place of purchase for such products Table 5. Developing food products which combine appealing sensory factors with favourable nutritional profile could revolutionise the sports nutrition sector from a supplement focussed one, to that of a food industry.

Table 5. Descriptive data outlining preferences for place of purchase of a sports nutrition product. It is worth noting that this study was undertaken in Ireland so the results may not be fully generalisable to that of the wider athletic population.

The sporting activities of this sample, contains a considerable proportion of participants reporting engagement in random intermittent dynamic type sports such as soccer, rugby, Gaelic games and basketball which may not be representative of the sporting populations in certain areas of the world.

As a result of the convenience sampling nature of this sample it may not be fully representative of views on a population level and it is impossible to assess whether there would be a notable difference between responders and non-responders to the survey.

Due to the nature of the format of the rank order questions, it was not possible to statistically compare answers against different population groups such as across gender and competition level, further research should be considered to elucidate trends of these topics across population sectors and among specific sporting sectors.

There has been both significant growth in the sports nutrition sector as well as significant progression in the scientific knowledge surrounding nutritional practices to support sport and exercise in recent years.

However, at this pivotal juncture for the sector it appears that by listening to the end user, greater efficiency and efficacy can be gained in the new product development process.

In fields such as skeletal muscle recovery there are clear disparities between the current practice of athletes and active individuals and the scientific evidence of best practice.

A transition towards a food first approach in sports nutrition is vital for athletes and active individuals to achieve their goals, with the development of functional foods, particularly with the focus of muscle recovery, endurance, and strength enhancement at the forefront.

This population has also shown considerable support for the scientific process in developing such products and testing their respective efficacy.

There appears to be particular enthusiasm towards beverages such as smoothies, juices and shakes as well as food products in bar or hot food format. This research merits consideration and priority in future new product developments in the sport and exercise nutrition sector.

The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by Social Research Ethics Committee, University College Cork. All authors contributed to the study conception, design, implementation and data-analysis.

The manuscript was written by CCC and all authors contributed to and commented on previous versions of the manuscript. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version.

This research was funded by the Irish Department of Agriculture, Food and the Marine, under the Food Institutional Research Measure FIRM Agreement no. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Kreider RB, Wilborn CD, Taylor L, Campbell B, Almada AL, Collins R, et al. J Int Soc Sports Nutr. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar.

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Practitioners will find checklists, decision trees, assessment worksheets and questionnaires, templates, nutritional breakdowns and a wealth of supporting research to help modify and adapt each tool to meet the unique needs of their athletes.

The content was authored by GSSI Scientists Liam Brown, M. and Ian Rollo, Ph. Download the Free Toolkit. Historical nutrition strategies were based on beliefs and sport-specific traditions that had little to do with any consideration of human biology and physiology.

Dan Benardot, FACSM, presents the President's Lecture at the ACSM Annual Meeting. In This Section:. Trending Topic Nutrition. The performance of, and recovery from, sporting activities are enhanced by well-chosen nutrition strategies.

To promote notable changes in muscle size, you need to regularly perform resistance training for an extended period of time while making sure your diet is on point. Even then, depending on a number of factors, including genetics, sex, and body size, you will likely not look bulky.

Another common myth in sports nutrition is that eating close to bedtime will cause additional fat gain. Many metabolic processes take place during sleep. For example, eating two slices of pizza before bed is much more likely to result in fat gain than eating a cup of cottage cheese or Greek yogurt.

Coffee gets a bad rap for being dehydrating. While sports nutrition is quite individualized, some general areas are important for most athletes.

Choosing the right foods, zeroing in your macros, optimizing meal timing, ensuring good hydration, and selecting appropriate snacks can help you perform at your best. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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Skin Care. Nutrition Evidence Based Everything You Need to Know About Sports Nutrition. Medically reviewed by Jared Meacham, Ph. Basics Macronutrients Timing Hydration Snacks Supplements Sports nutritionists Myths vs. Basic sports nutrition advice. What to know about macronutrients. Meal and nutrient timing considerations.

Hydration needs. What to know about snacks. Supplements for sports nutrition. What sports nutritionists do.

Sports nutrition myths. The bottom line. How we reviewed this article: Sources. Healthline has strict sourcing guidelines and relies on peer-reviewed studies, academic research institutions, and medical associations. We avoid using tertiary references. You can learn more about how we ensure our content is accurate and current by reading our editorial policy.

Feb 3, Written By Daniel Preiato. Medically Reviewed By Jared Meacham, Ph.

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Recent literature outlines nutrition needs for youth athlete development, suggesting various shifts in focus through the athlete development process e. Whole foods received and first preferences for recovery and performance products, respectively. Effects of caffeine intake on muscle strength and power: a systematic review and meta-analysis. In This Section:. Third-Party testing nutritional supplement knowledge, attitudes, and use among an NCAA I collegiate student-athlete population. It is critical to gain a quantifiable understanding of what aspects of physiological function this population prioritise as being important to support both their health and athletic performance.
Sports Nutrition: A Complete Guide Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar Espel-Huynh HM, Muratore AF, Lowe MR. The findings of these focus groups enabled the design of the key questions utilised in the online questionnaire allowing the targeted identification of particular disconnects between current product offerings and the needs of end-users, both known and hidden. Bland—Altman plot for protein intake calculated using RFPM and weighed food diary. Data analysis Data was extracted from Qualtrics for further statistical analysis. et al. Home Healthy eating. Vitamin D for COVID a case to answer?

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