Category: Diet

Glycemic load and satiety

Glycemic load and satiety

Hunger, fullness, and satiety Lkad assessed by visual analog scale. Natural fat burners Willett and associates at the Harvard School of Public Health. Tsihlias EB, Gibbs AL, McBurney MI, Wolever TM. However, appetite, hunger and satiety after the ingestion of foods with varying GI were inconsistent among long-term human intervention studies.

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Glycemic load and satiety -

Although some short-term human studies suggest that low GI carbohydrates suppress hunger more effectively than high GI carbohydrates, there is currently little data on the GI effects on body weight.

Long-term well-designed human studies are necessary to evaluate how high and low GI diets containing foods of the same volume, energy density, macronutrient composition, fiber content and palatability affect energy intake, body composition, and body weight for biologically significant periods of time.

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Texto EN Texto Inglês. PDF Download PDF Inglês. glycemic index; eating; body weight; satiety. índice glicêmico; ingestão de alimentos; peso corporal; saciedade. ALFENAS ; Enauê Paiva II I Universidade Federal de Viçosa, Departamento de Nutrição e Saúde.

Ouro Preto, MG, Brasil ABSTRACT Despite extensive study, the practical significance of the glycemic index of food is still debatable. Indexing terms: glycemic index; eating; body weight; satiety.

RESUMO Apesar de vários estudos, o significado prático do índice glicêmico dos alimentos ainda é bastante discutível. Termos de indexação: índice glicêmico; ingestão de alimentos; peso corporal; saciedade. Glycemic index and satiety It has been claimed that high GI diets have an inferior satiating power compared to low GI diets 7.

Glycemic index and body weight Some studies indicate that, following ingestion of high GI meals, there is a rapid increase in blood glucose and insulin concentrations, shifting the metabolism towards an anabolic state 20 , favoring weight gain. Rogers PJ.

Eating habits and appetite control: a psychobiological perspective. Proc Nutr Soc. Ludwig DS, Majzoub JA, Al-Zahran A, Dallal GE, Blanco I, Roberts SB.

High glycemic index foods, overeating, and obesity. Anderson GH, Catherine NLA, Woodend DM, Wolever TMS. Inverse association between the effect of carbohydrates on blood glucose and subsequent short-term food intake in young men. Am Soc Clin Nutr. Ludwig DS. The glycemic index: Physiological mechanisms relating to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease.

Foster-Powell K, Holt SH, Brand-Miller JC International table of glycemic index and glycemic load values: Am J Clin Nutr. Spieth LE, Harnish JD, Lenders CM, Raezer LB, Pereira M, Hangen SJ, et al.

A low-glycemic index diet in the treatment of pediatric obesity. Arch Ped Adol Med. Brand-Miller JC, Holt SH, Pawlak DB, McMillan J.

Glycemic index and obesity. Dickinson S, Brand-Miller J. Glycemic index, postprandial glycemia and cardiovascular disease. Curr Opin Lipidol. Kaplan RJ, Greenwood CE. Influence of dietary carbohydrates and glycaemic response on subjective appetite and food intake in healthy elderly persons.

Int J Food Sci Nutr. Boivin A, Montplaisir I, Deshaies Y. Post: prandial modulation of lipoprotein lipase in rats with insulin resistance.

Am J Physiol. Holt SHA, Miller BJ. Increased insulin response to ingested foods are associated with lessened satiety. Stewart SL, Black RM, Wolever TMS, Anderson H. The relationship between glycemic response to breakfast cereals and subjective appetite and food intake.

Nutr Res. Raben A, Tagliabue A, Christensen NJ, Madsen J, Holst JJ, Astrup A. Resistant starch: the effect on postprandial glycemia, hormonal response, and satiety. Am J Clinl Nutr. Yeomans MR. Palatability and the micro-structure of feeding in humans: the appetizer effect.

Sawaya AL, Fuss PJ, Dallal GE, Tsay R, McCrory MA, Young V, et al. Meal palatability, substrate oxidation and blood glucose in young and old men. Physiol Behav.

Teff KL, Engelman K. Palatability and dietary restraint: effect on cephalic phase insulin release in women. Tsihlias EB, Gibbs AL, McBurney MI, Wolever TM. Comparison of high-and low-glycemic-index breakfast cereals with monounsaturated fat in the long-term dietary management of type 2 diabetes.

Jonnalagadda SS, Benardot D, Dill MN. Assessment of under-reporting of energy intake by elite female gymnast. Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab.

These observations are in line with our findings, although we studied the impact of GL rather than GI on food intake in a subsequent meal. The increased hunger that is experienced with the HGL meal may be related to the hormonal and metabolic consequences of HGL foods. Consumption of a HGL meal leads to rapid absorption of glucose because HGL foods are more readily digestible [ 33 ].

The counter regulatory hormone, glucagon is inhibited by elevated glucose and gut hormones, while release of insulin is stimulated [ 33 ]. The high insulin concentration promotes glucose uptake by liver and muscle, while suppressing lipolysis in adipoctyes and reducing the release of glucose from the liver into the circulation [ 13 , 34 ].

As a result, the blood glucose concentration is rapidly decreased following a HGL meal when compared to a LGL meal [ 33 ]. Thus, the hunger response occurs faster with a HGL meal than with a LGL meal [ 13 ].

This increased hunger may or may not lead to increased energy intake in subsequent meal. In the present study, greater energy intake at lunch after consuming the HGL test breakfast meal did not occur indicating that the association between hunger and energy intake is much more complicated than a simple linear association.

Additional analysis revealed no correlation between intake of breakfast GL value and satiety after breakfast, hunger prior to lunch, or energy intake at lunchtime during either of the test breakfast interventions. This led us to believe that the significantly greater hunger we observed before lunch after consumption of HGL breakfast was due to factor s other than the GL of the breakfast meal consumed.

Although attempts were made to match macronutrient contents of the two test breakfast meals, children were allowed to consume as they desired, therefore macronutrient intake varied from child to child. In the LGL intervention group, children consumed significantly more protein and fat compared to HGL group at the breakfast.

Protein and fat are known to trigger the release of cholecystokinin CCK from I cells of the duodenal and jejunal mucosal cells. CCK activates CCK receptor-1 in the pyloric sphincter leading to pyloric sphincter contraction and decreased gastric emptying [ 35 ].

This further leads to decreased hunger. Dietary fiber could not have played a role in decreased hunger in the LGL intervention group because the dietary fiber intake was significantly lower in the LGL than in the HGL intervention group.

Therefore, the significant difference observed between the test breakfast meals in hunger before lunch may be due to significant differences in the macronutrient intakes associated with two test breakfast meals.

Despite the lack of significant difference observed in hunger before breakfast for the two test breakfast meals, significantly more energy was consumed by children at breakfast when the HGL test breakfast was served.

However, no significant difference was found in the amount of food consumed at breakfast between the LGL and HGL intervention groups. This can be attributed to the greater energy density of the HGL test breakfast meal than the LGL test breakfast meal.

Foods with high GL tend to have a greater energy density due to the fact that they are usually processed as convenience-type foods and also often have greater sugar contents [ 3 , 36 ]. In conclusion, this study suggests that when pre-school aged children consumed breakfast meals with differing GLs, a significant difference in hunger before lunch resulted.

However, the observed difference in hunger prior to lunch did not have an impact on energy intake at lunch. It is possible that the significant difference observed in huger prior to lunch was due to difference in micronutrient intakes from these test meals.

One limitation of this study was that the children regularly chose extreme ratings due to their inability to fully understand the meaning of hunger, satiety, or palatability.

Another limitation of this study is that the results may have been confounded by the energy content, carbohydrate quantity and quality, fiber content, and glycemic index of breakfast meals.

In this study, participants were not required to consume the entire portion of the breakfast. However, it is not known how this affected the study outcomes.

Studies are needed to validate hunger, satiety, and palatability scales in pre-school age children. More research is needed to establish a clear role of GL in hunger and satiety, and its eventual relation with obesity in various stages of life.

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Download references. Authors thank the staff of RUMC's day school and foodservice for their cooperation and support in completion of this study. This finding agrees in part with a recent systematic review which found that individuals with overweight or obesity experienced increased satiety or reduced hunger in response to HP consumption in 6 of 10 short to medium-term studies However, a second meta-analysis revealed that whilst acute protein consumption may improve appetite control, the results were not consistent and heterogeneity was high in long-term trials The mixed results may be partly attributed to the differences between studies, which includes the number of participants and methods of appetite assessment.

the HP-low GI groups during 3-years WLM. In that study, appetite sensations were assessed in the fasting condition, whereas in the present study, overall sensations in the previous week were recorded. In addition, the number of participants in Sydney was smaller than in the current study.

Regarding methods of appetite assessment, in short-term studies with fixed meals, acute appetite was commonly determined at different time points after the meals, whereas in medium-or longer-term studies, the procedures varied. For example, Soenen et al. In a 1-year study, Cheng et al.

In the present study, appetite sensations were determined once at each CID and were based on recall of overall feelings during the prior week. Compared with measurements assessed acutely, recall of feelings may cause bias, especially when it is based on the average for a week.

Notably, we also found that participants in the HP-HI group had lower hunger ratings during WLM compared with those in the MP-HI and MP-MI groups. Without having determined other relevant outcomes, it is difficult to explain the significant differences in ratings. Further investigations would be needed if this is to be clarified.

In the present analysis, we found a significant interaction of time and four intervention groups in terms of satiety, but there were no significant differences at each CID. Westerterp-Plantenga et al. In addition to hunger, satiety, dietary restraint, control of food-reward-related brain activation and reduced adaptive thermogenesis may have played a role in WLM of the PREVIEW study.

In another PREVIEW sub-study, Drummen et al. Studies on the effect of GI on appetite are equivocal and controversial. A secondary observational analysis of the PREVIEW cohort found that participants in the lowest tertile of GI and glycemic load regained less weight over 3 years than the highest tertile In another review, 12 of 18 short-term studies supported the hypothesis that low GI foods or meals lead to increased satiety or reduced hunger compared with high GI foods or meals The heterogeneity in findings can probably be attributed to differences in macronutrient content, but a complicated interplay between other dietary factors can also affect both carbohydrate digestion and metabolism 50 and thereby feelings of appetite.

In some studies, fiber content of the test meals was not controlled 51 , although fiber intake was similar between the PREVIEW intervention groups according to the food records It should be remembered, however, that we could not separate the potential effects of low GI and higher protein intake in PREVIEW, since they were both included in the HP diet.

In addition, to macronutrient consumption, an individual's genotype and gut microbiota may affect appetite and food intake 16 , Thus, precision nutrition for appetite and weight control may be needed.

Interestingly, we found significant positive correlations between changes in ratings of hunger, desire to eat, and desire to eat something sweet vs. change in BW, when participants from the four intervention groups were merged into one group.

This might partly support the generally accepted compensatory mechanism theory that any increase in drive to eat is a driver of weight regain in the long term 6 — 9.

Additionally, these findings are contrary to two recent long-term studies showing no significant correlations between changes in appetite and weight regain at 1- or 2-years follow-up 12 , In addition to baseline BMI, study duration, and differences in procedures of appetite assessment and type of population, differences in energy intake might explain conflicting results.

Unlike the referenced studies, the participants in the present study achieved partial WLM with diets varying in protein content and GI without energy limitation i.

With respect to PA, some prior studies reported no difference in appetite control between moderate-intensity continuous exercise and high-intensity interval exercise 25 , Taking feasibility and WLM duration into consideration, the HI program in the PREVIEW study was not designed as high-intensity interval exercise.

Compared with moderate-PA, we found high-intensity PA did not make a difference to appetite suppression during WLM. As reported elsewhere 31 , there was no difference in vigorous and moderate-to-vigorous PA between the HI and MI groups according to PREVIEW accelerometry data.

The lack of PA compliance may be one of the potential reasons why we did not detect any difference in appetite sensations between the two PA groups. Indeed, all groups performed similar mean amounts of physical activity of different intensities, regardless of the physical activity intervention to which they had been assigned.

In order to encourage higher levels of compliance and behavior change, PREVIEW developed a program called PREMIT to help participants develop new diet and PA habits 33 , 54 during the 3-years intervention.

Data from food records and accelerometry indicated that during WLM, participants led a healthier lifestyle with higher total volume of PA Nonetheless, it seems that behavioral approaches may not be sufficient for participants with overweight and obesity to achieve high intensity PA over the long term.

For obese individuals in particular, HI is difficult to follow in the long-term. The present study has several strengths.

It compared two diets varying in protein content and GI according to two previous large-scale, successful intervention studies on WL 57 — Not only the main effect but also the interaction of diet and PA was analyzed. The duration of this study was longer than in most previous trials 60 , addressing a common lifelong problem of changes in appetite after diet-induced rapid WL.

In addition, this study was conducted in a large overweight or obese population with a wide age span and multi-ethnicity in European countries, Australia, and New Zealand. The present study also has limitations. However, for appetite scores, the current analyses have sufficient power, and attrition is not an issue The level of dietary and PA compliance was poorer than planned and there was no difference between the two PA groups in PA intensity.

Therefore, it remains an unanswered question if there are long-term effects of different exercise intensities on subjective appetite sensations. Further analyses on associations between PA and appetite irrespective of allocation are needed Furthermore, as standard meals were not provided, all our results were based on memory recall of overall appetite sensations in the fasting and postprandial state during the previous week.

Recall bias is inevitable and a combination of fasting and postprandial appetite may make some significant results undetectable.

Finally, acute food intake at subsequent meals was not included in the PREVIEW protocol. As appetite sensations do not always predict individual's intake, further analyses and studies are needed. In conclusion, a HP-low GI diet reduced feelings of hunger during WLM compared to a MP-moderate GI diet, but did not affect weight regain.

In addition, the combination of HP-HI also reduced feelings of hunger compared to MP-HI. Due to insufficient difference in PA intensities between HI vs.

MI, long-term differences of high vs. moderate intensity PA on appetite could not be assessed. The raw data supporting the conclusions of this article will be made available by the authors, without undue reservation.

The studies involving human participants were reviewed and approved by The PREVIEW study was approved by the Human Ethics Committees at each intervention center and was conducted in accordance with the Declaration of Helsinki and its later amendments.

The PREVIEW project was designed by AR, JB-M, MW-P, MF, and WS. The protocol for the PREVIEW adult intervention study was written by MF, TLar, and AR.

MW-P, IM, JM, SP, WS, GS, SH, NS, and MT were involved in developing the study design and diet and physical activity interventions.

RZ and AR designed the analysis plan for these analyses. RZ performed the data analysis and takes responsibility for the accuracy of the data analysis. RZ drafted the manuscript with supervision from AR. AR attests that all listed authors meet authorship criteria and that no others meeting the criteria have been omitted.

AR and RZ are the guarantors of this work and as such, had full access to all of the data in the study, and take responsibility for the integrity of the data.

All authors contributed to the implementation of the experimental trial, contributed to analysis, interpretation of the data, contributed to critical revision of the manuscript for important intellectual content, agreed that the accuracy and integrity of the work has been appropriately investigated and resolved, and all approved the final version of the manuscript.

National Health and Medical Research Council—EU Collaborative Grant, AUS 8, ID The Glycemic Index Foundation Australia through royalties to the University of Sydney. Senior Research Fellowships from the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council NHMRC, , and The Cambridge Weight Plan © donated all products for the 8-weeks LED period.

The Danish Meat and Research Institute. National Institute for Health Research Biomedical Research Centre NIHR BRC UK. Engineering and Physical Sciences Research Council EPSRC UK. Nutritics Dublin donated all dietary analyses software used by UNOTT.

Juho Vainio Foundation FIN , Academy of Finland grant numbers: , , , , Finnish Medical Foundation, Gyllenberg Foundation, Novo Nordisk Foundation, Finnish Diabetes Research Foundation, University of Helsinki, Government Research Funds for Helsinki University Hospital FIN , Jenny and Antti Wihuri Foundation FIN , Emil Aaltonen Foundation FIN.

China Scholarship Council. The funders of the study had no role in study design, data collection, data analysis, data interpretation, or writing of the report. AR has received honorariums from the International Sweeteners Association and Unilever.

JB-M is President and Director of the Glycemic Index Foundation, oversees of a glycemic index testing service at the University of Sydney and is a co-author of books about diet and diabetes. She is also a member of the Scientific Advisory Board of the Novo Foundation and of ZOE Global.

IM was a member of the UK Government Scientific Advisory Committee on Nutrition, Treasurer of the Federation of European Nutrition Societies, Treasurer of the World Obesity Federation, member of the Mars Scientific Advisory Council, member of the Mars Europe Nutrition Advisory Board, and Scientific Adviser to the Waltham Centre for Pet Nutrition, and was also a member of the Nestle Research Scientific Advisory Board, and of the Novozymes Scientific Advisory Board, during the PREVIEW intervention.

SP was the Fonterra Chair in Human Nutrition during the PREVIEW intervention. She has also received presentation fees and travel reimbursements from Eli Lilly and Co. TLam is employed by NetUnion sarl, who contributed to the data collection process in the absence of commercial or financial conflict of interest with the study analysis.

The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. The PREVIEW consortium would like to thank all study participants at every intervention center for their time and commitment and all scientists, advisors, and students for their dedication and contributions to the study.

We would like to thank Louise Dye chairman of the Scientific Advisory Board, SAB , University of Leeds, UK, Richard Atkinson Ethical Officer of the SAB , Virginia Commonwealth University, USA, and medical expert and consultant Stephen Colagiuri University of Sydney, Australia.

Furthermore, we gratefully thank the research staff from each center. From University of Copenhagen Denmark : Laura Pastor-Sanz, Grith Møller, Lone Vestergaard Nielsen, Kasper Nowak, Christian Ritz, Arne Astrup, Finn Sandø-Pedersen, Morten Bo Johansen, Ulla Skovbæch Pedersen, Maria Roed Andersen, Marianne Juhl Hansen, Jane Jørgensen, Sofie Skov Frost, Lene Stevner.

From University of Helsinki Finland : KIRSI PIETILÄINEN, Heikki Tikkanen, Saara GRÖNHOLM née Kettunen , Tiia Kunnas, Sanna Ritola, Laura KAINU née Korpipää , Heini Hyvärinen, Karoliina Himanen, Tiina Pellinen, Elina Malkamäki, Heidi Jokinen, Pauliina Kokkonen, Liisi Korhonen, Jaana Valkeapää, Heli Pikkarainen, Martta JALAVISTO née Nieminen , Tuulia ONALI née Ingman , Pihla Mäkinen, and Sonja Toijonen.

From University of Nottingham the U. From University of Navarra Spain : Blanca Martinez de Morentin, Maria Hernandez Ruiz de Eguilaz, Salome Perez Diez, Veronica Ciaurriz, Angels Batlle, Maria Jose Cobo. From Medical University of Sofia Bulgaria : Georgi Bogdanov, Pavlina Gateva, Rossica Metodieva, Galia Dobrevska.

From Swansea University the U. From Finnish Institute for Health and Welfare Finland : Merja Tukiainen, Ira Greinert, Laura Karjalainen, Jukka Lauronen. From University of Sydney Australia : Fiona Atkinson, Michele Whittle, Jessica Burke, Kylie Simpson, Kimberley Way, Sally McClintock, Radhika Seimon, Shelly Keating, Kirsten Bell, Tania Markovic, Cathy Corry, Evalyn Eldering, Ian Caterson.

From University of Auckland New Zealand : Amy Liu, Anne-Thea McGill, Katya Volkova, Madhavi Bollineni, Clarence Vivar, Kelly Storey, Niamh Brennan, Audrey Tay, Lindsay Plank, Nicholas Gant, Jon Woodhead.

From Wageningen University the Netherlands : Edith Feskens. BMI, body mass index; BW, body weight; GI, glycemic index; HI, high intensity physical activity; HP, higher protein; HP-HI, high protein-low glycemic index diet, moderate intensity physical activity; HP-MI, high protein-low glycemic index diet, high intensity physical activity; LED, low-energy diet; MET, metabolic equivalents of task; MI, moderate intensity physical activity; MP, moderate protein; MP-HI, moderate protein-moderate glycemic index diet, high intensity physical activity; MP-MI, moderate protein-moderate glycemic index diet, moderate intensity physical activity; OGTT, oral glucose tolerance test; PA, physical activity; VAS, visual analogue scales; WL, weight loss; WLM, weight-loss maintenance.

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Changes in the homeostatic appetite system after weight loss reflect a normalization toward a lower body weight. J Clin Endocrinol Metab. Nymo S, Coutinho SR, Eknes PH, Vestbostad I, Rehfeld JF, Truby H, et al.

Investigation of the long-term sustainability of changes in appetite after weight loss. Coutinho SR, Rehfeld JF, Holst JJ, Kulseng B, Martins C. Impact of weight loss achieved through a multidisciplinary intervention on appetite in patients with severe obesity.

Am J Physiol Endocrinol Metab. Brennan IM, Luscombe-Marsh ND, Seimon RV, Otto B, Horowitz M, Wishart JM, et al. Effects of fat, protein, and carbohydrate and protein load on appetite, plasma cholecystokinin, peptide YY, and ghrelin, and energy intake in lean and obese men.

Am J Physiol Gastrointest Liver Physiol. Hu T, Yao L, Reynolds K, Niu T, Li S, Whelton P, et al.

Ann G. LiuSatjety M. MostMeghan M. BrashearWilliam D. JohnsonWilliam T. CefaluFrank L. Glycemic load and satiety Written by: Christy Zagarella, Glycemic load and satiety, Cooking classes and workshops. A sariety diet satieyy based on choosing foods low Gylcemic the glycemic Magnesium-rich recipes GI. Incorporating more of these low-GI foods is valuable for those watching blood sugars. Particularly when pairing with adequate protein, there is a favorable link between the glycemic index and weight loss. But the glycemic index may not tell the entire food story regarding the impact on overall health.

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