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Chitosan extraction methods

Chitosan extraction methods

Puvvada YS, Vankayalapati S, Sukhavasi S. Extraction of Chitosan extraction methods from Methodss Shell and Preparation of Chitosan. The DD was determined by metgods Quality method of acid-base Subjects: Fisheries. Effect of PVP content on the quaternized polysulfone in blend membranes. Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 24 22 — Article Google Scholar Bharathi KS, Ramesh ST Removal of dyes using agricultural waste as low-cost adsorbents: a review.

Chitosan extraction methods Chitosab Research and Extension, Royal University of Agriculture. Institute of Crop Science, University of the Chitosan extraction methods Los Banos.

Extracgion extraction methods Chitosan extraction methods not Quality applied metbods Chitosan extraction methods in Cambodia whose seafood industry produced tons of shrimp extrzction waste yearly.

Extration study adopted the chemical extraction method and optimized the deacetylation Chitosna from chitin to chitosan using Chitosan extraction methods concentrations of sodium Water weight reduction strategies NaOH.

Shrimp Chitoan exoskeleton was sequentially treated with Quality 3, Quality. Chitosan yield, moisture content, metohds ash, lipid, fiber, Athletes electrolyte drink, nitrogen content, viscosity, and degree Immunity enhancing lifestyle Chitosan extraction methods were determined.

The commercial chitosan bought from a methodw market was Chitosan extraction methods for comparison. Lipid and fiber contents were not significantly affected.

Already have an account? Sign in here. International Journal of Environmental and Rural Development. Online ISSN : Print ISSN : X ISSN-L : X. Journal home All issues About the journal.

Effects of Chemical Extraction Methods on Physicochemical Properties of Shrimp Chitosan. SOCHEATH TONGBORARIN BUNTONGLAIKONG SOPHALSOKMEAN VANNANTONIO ACEDO JR.

Author information. SOCHEATH TONG Division of Research and Extension, Royal University of Agriculture BORARIN BUNTONG Division of Research and Extension, Royal University of Agriculture LAIKONG SOPHAL Division of Research and Extension, Royal University of Agriculture SOKMEAN VANN Division of Research and Extension, Royal University of Agriculture ANTONIO ACEDO JR.

Corresponding author. Keywords: shrimp shellchitinchitosandeacetylationNaOH concentration. JOURNAL FREE ACCESS. Published: Received: July 13, Available on J-STAGE: February 09, Accepted: October 18, Advance online publication: - Revised:. Download PDF K Download citation RIS compatible with EndNote, Reference Manager, ProCite, RefWorks.

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: Chitosan extraction methods

ORIGINAL RESEARCH article

the dynamic viscosity and shear stress, as a function of shear rate of chitosan solubilized in weakly acid solutions. They found out that the shear thinning behavior pseudoplastic non-Newtonian behavior was pronounced at temperatures from 20 to 50°C, but was more remarkable at lower temperature.

Furthermore, an increase in viscosity was obtained with extending the period of storage to 3 months, after which a drop in viscosity was recorded. Thermal properties of chitosan films are also investigated by employing thermogravimetric analyses TGA and differential scanning calorimetry DSC [24].

The study concluded that the dynamic rheological measurements of chitosan solutions in acetic acid suggested pseudoplastic non-Newtonian behavior. The shear thinning behavior was remarkable at temperatures between 20 and 50°C.

Chitosan solutions in acetic acid were found to obey the Arrhenius equation. In addition, chitosan in acetic acid solutions exhibited less shear thinning and an increase in viscosity with increasing concentration.

This study has also shown that curves of the dynamic viscosity of chitosan solutions show similar behavior at all shearing times of sec and that less shear thinning behavior and higher values of viscosity of chitosan solutions were observed when the storage period was extended to 3 months.

A general increase in viscosity with time was also observed at a constant shear rate, suggesting rheopexy behavior.

However, a drop in viscosity was recorded in the fourth month. On the other hand, DSC results of chitosan film showed agreement with those obtained by TG measurements concerning the thermostability and degradation [24].

Antimicrobial Properties of Chitosan Limam et al. These were Parapennaeus longirostris waste and Squilla mantis. The microorganisms used were strain of bacteria Escherichia coli , Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus , four fungi Candida glabrata , Candida albicans , Candida parapsilensis and Candida kreusei.

Their result showed that Squilla chitosan had a minimum inhibitory concentration MIC against the different fungi exceptionally for C. The antioxidant activity was investigated with 2, 2-diphenylpicrylhdrazyl DPPH.

Parapennaeus longirostris chitosan showed the highest radical scavenging properties [25]. Chitosan oligomers are known to have various biological activities including antitumor activities [26], immune-enhancing effects, protective effects against infection with some pathogens anti-fungal activities and antimicrobial activities [27].

Chitosan can inhibit the growth of a wide range of bacteria. This is due to the fact that chitosan possesses a high antibacterial activity, a broad spectrum of activity, a higher killing rate, and lower toxicity toward mammalian cells.

Solubility of Chitosan The N-deacetylated derivative of chitin, chitosan is insoluble at neutral and alkaline pH, but soluble in inorganic and organic acids such as hydrochloric, glutamic acids; acetic, formic and lactic acids [28].

The properties that make chitosan commercially relevant are its biodegradability, biocompartibility and the ability to transform into gels, beads, fibres, colloids, powders and capsules [28]. These attributes have given chitosan its much attention as a functional biopolymer for diverse applications in pharmaceuticals, foods and cosmetics.

Application of Chitosan Natural and non-toxic biopolymers such as chitosan are now widely produced commercially from crab and shrimp shell waste. During the past few decades, chitin and chitosan have attracted significant interest in view of a wide range of proposed novel applications. Their unique properties, biodegradability, biocompatibility and non-toxicity make them useful for a wide range of applications.

Chitin is mainly used as the raw material to produce chitin-derived products, such as chitosans, oligosaccharides, and glucosamine [29]. The worldwide industrial production of these derivatives in year is estimated to be above 10 tonnes [30].

Wastewater Treatment with Chitin and Chitosan Chitosan is used for the adsorption or fixation of heavy metals and dyes and in immobilization of microorganisms or sludge in chitosan matrices for waste water treatment in extreme environmental conditions. Chitosan is also effective in coagulation, flocculation and dehydration of activated sludge for wastewater treatment [30], [31].

Chitosan Blends Chitosan blends with natural polymers [45], [46] or synthetic polymers [47] have been reported [48]. Miscibility, structure and properties of the constituents of the blend is a key factor influencing the properties of a polymer blend.

New materials and properties normally evolve from the chitosan blend when the original polymers are compartible. By synergistic effects the blend provides better properties than the pure component [49]. Conclusions The extraction, evaluation, characteristics and properties of chitosan has been described with a view to showcase the importance of chitosan in medicine and pharmaceutical industries.

The relevance of chitosan resides in tis biological activities of biodegradability, biocompatibility, non-toxicity and physicochemical properties of degree of deacetylation and molecular mass. In the chemical extraction of chitosan from chitin high temperature is better avoided because heat can destroy the physicochemical properties of the polymer.

New materials with better activity are observed when the original polymer is compatible and the resulting blend provides better properties than the pure compounds. There is no doubt that chitosan remains one of the most important biopolymer.

In this regards many thanks to D. Sakthivel et al. S, Islem Younes and Marguerite Rinaudo, Elso Santiago de Alvarenga, Zouhour Limam et al. References [1] Tolaimate, A, Desbrières, J, Rhazi, M, Alagui, M, Vincendon, M and Vottero, P. Progress in Polymer Science. J Bioactive and Compatible Polym.

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All rights reserved. Figure 2. Chemical structure of chitosan and its production from chitin. Tolaimate, A, Desbrières, J, Rhazi, M, Alagui, M, Vincendon, M and Vottero, P. Rinaudo, M. Li, Q, Dunn, ET, Grandmaison, EW and Goosen MFA. Rout, SK. Kumar, MNVR. Puvvada, YSS, Vankayalapati, S, Sukhavasi.

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Senel, S and McClure, SJ. Einbu, A, Vårum, KM. Kurita, K, : Chitin and Chitosan. Crini, G, Guibal, E, Morcellet, M, Torri, G and Badot, PM.

Nsereko, S, Amiji, M. Morimoto, M, Saimoto, H, Yoshihiro, S. Patil, RS, Ghormade, V, Deshpande, MV. Sashiwa, H, Yajima, H, Aiba, SI. Figure 6. Demineralization DM and deproteination DP efficiency in different fermentation methods. acidophilus fermentation; b E. profundum fermentation; c successive two-step fermentation; and d chemical extraction method.

Jung et al. After h of fermentation, the yields of DM and DP were Zhang et al. marcescens B and L. plantarum ATCC After 6 days of fermentation, DP and DM reached Although the DP efficiency was slightly lower than the values reported in the same study, both L.

acidophilus and E. profundum are safe organisms. marcescens acts as a conditional pathogen, but does not meet the requirements of the food industry. However, harmful acid caused depolymerization of the product. The inherent properties of chitin were changed, resulting in a decrease in its molecular weight and degree of acetylation.

The intrinsic properties of purified chitin were also affected Shamshina et al. The successive two-step fermentation helps to avoid many drawbacks of chemical treatment, which is a simple and environment-friendly alternative to chemical methods employed in the chitin extraction Hajji et al.

The results of SEM showed that the surface of the shrimp shell was rough Figure 7a. Many inorganic components were present and strongly embedded in chitin gaps and flexible protein macromolecules.

acidophilus fermented sample Figure 7b surface was rough because of the presence of residual protein. The successive two-step fermented sample Figure 7c had a smooth surface, which has become uniform and porous with a lamellar organized structure Flores-Albino et al.

It was consistent with the description of Knidri et al. It was similar to the chitin extracted by the chemical extraction Figure 7d. Figure 7. Scanning electron microscopy SEM micrographs of chitin obtained from shrimp shells a , L. acidophilus b , successive two-step fermented sample c , and chemical extraction method d.

The band at cm —1 was an aliphatic C—H flexural vibration. The bands between and cm —1 were related to the pyranoside ring Rao and Stevens, ; Hajji et al. The DDs of samples after chemical extraction, L.

acidophilus fermentation and successive two-step fermentation were The density of peak area is positively correlated with the degree of acetylation Zhang et al. These results were consistent with the calculated DD results. The high degree of deacetylation of chitin reflects the severity of its degradation Younes et al.

The low deacetylation degree of successive two-step fermented samples indicated that the deacetylation process of the chemical extraction of chitin was declined. Although pure chitin can be produced by chemical methods, the product obtained from this process can be a suitable product Beaney et al.

Biotechnological processes might be a viable option to overcome environmental and safety issues associated with chemical processes. Figure 8. Fourier transform infrared spectrophotometer FT-IR spectrum for chitin obtained by chemical extraction method a , L. acidophilus fermentation b , and successive two-step fermentation c.

The XRD spectra of samples showed two main diffraction peaks at 9. The I CR values of chitin extracted by successive two-step fermentation, chemical method, and L. acidophilus fermentation were The relatively low I CR could be attributed to the breaking of intramolecular and intermolecular hydrogen bonds and the formation of amorphous chitin Zhao et al.

In addition, fermentation broths rich in protein hydrolyzates amino acids and polypeptides should also be considered for further recycling Todd, Figure 9. X-ray diffractometer XRD spectrum for chitin obtained by chemical extraction method a , successive two-step fermentation b , and L.

acidophilus fermentation c. After successive two-step fermentation, The low levels of residual minerals 2. The chitin from successive two-step fermentation contained a low deacetylation degree, avoiding the chitin deacetylation process during the chemical extraction. Its low crystallinity value would provide the possibility for more efficient chemical modification in the subsequent processing steps.

The method significantly reduced the use of required chemicals and produced a large amount of protein-rich fermentation broth with high nutritional value, which has great potential to produce high-value proteins for consumption.

This study provides a relatively simple and environmentally friendly alternative method for preparing chitin from shrimp shells. RX: conceptualization.

WX: data curation. JY: writing—original draft preparation. JX: writing—review and editing. ZS and LS: supervision.

XY: project administration. All authors have read and agreed to the published version of the manuscript. The remaining authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers. Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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Optimization of proteins and minerals removal from shrimp shells to produce highly acetylated chitin.

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Anomeric proton C-1 proton resonance appeared at 4. The other resonances of C2-C6 protons were observed at ppm. On the basis of the intensities of the resonances for C-1 proton and methyl protons, one can determine the degree of deacetylation DDA from the 1 H-NMR spectrum as follows:.

The external morphology of chitin and chitosan particles was characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope. Extracted chitin particles were fiber-like and showed distinctly arranged microfibrillar crystalline structure with high diversity and without porosity.

The final chitosan demonstrated similar microfibrillar structure with the accumulation of crystalline particles on the fibers in some areas Figure 5. The EDX plot of chitin showed the presence of carbon, oxygen, sodium, and iron.

Further, EDX plot of chitosan showed the presence of carbon and iron. Therefore, the EDX test demonstrated the presence of iron in the extracted chitin and chitosan.

According to EDX results, the average amount of iron in chitin was 8. Scavenging activity of extracted and commercial chitosan on DPPH radical when compared with the control BHA in similar concentrations.

Scavenging activity of extracted and commercial chitosan on ABTS radical when compared with the control BHA in similar concentrations. The free radical scavenging activity of chitosan was evaluated by DPPH scavenging. The chitosan demonstrated a dose dependent manner activity. In order to assay the antioxidant activity of chitosan, ABTS free radical scavenging activity was also measured.

Figure 8. Further, chitosan showed a dose dependent manner activity similar to which observed in DPPH test. Producing chitosan from the chitin existed through the nature is important; because natural types of chitosan may have novel usages in biological science compared to the available commercial chitosan.

Since today, Chitin, as a natural polymer, has been extracted from different natural resources, including crustacean exoskeleton e. shrimps and crabs , insect cuticle, squid pens, and fungi cell membrane.

As far as we know, extracting chitin from the Chiton shell is documented for the first time here in this study. Reviewing through the literature showed that the percent of the chitin extracted herein from the Chiton shell 4.

As previously mentioned, chitin is classified into α-, β-, and γ-types. Abdou et al has been noted that β-chitin has a higher solubility, reactivity, swelling and affinity towards the solvents compared to α-chitin During the experiments, we found high solubility and swelling for the extracted chitin.

Therefore, the type of chitin extracted from the Chiton shell may be β-chitin. Based on our results, the concentrations of iron observed in the produced chitosan was The colour of the produced chitosan here in this study was brownish, which is darker than milky coloured chitosan produced from the crustaceans.

Being dark could be a reason of presenting high concentrations of Fe in the Chiton shell. All characterization methods used in this study demonstrated that the products gained after deproteinization and deacetylation were chitin and chitosan, respectively.

The results of the characterization tests in this study were compared to those previously reported for crustaceans, because it was the first experience of producing chitosan using the chitin extracted from the Chiton shell. Our results showed that the heating time through the deacetylation has a positive correlation with degree of deacetylation DDA Table 1 , which has been noted in other studies Studies show that Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR can be applied for identifying molecules; just like finger print in human FTIR result in our study showed that Herein we used XRD to detect crystallization, found in the extracted chitin and produced chitosan, and was higher in the chitin Figure 3.

Being crystalline is known as a characteristic of the chitin and chitosan. Further, degree of crystallization is higher in chitin compared to chitosan, since crystallization decreases through the deacetylation Our results have been confirmed by these findings.

According to the obtained results from elemental analysis and 1 H-NMR, the final degree of deacetylation of chitosan for both methods are very similar.

They found that the surface of the particles has a fibril formed without porosity. The same structure has been found in our study Figure 5. Antioxidant activity is one of the famous functions introduced for chitosan.

Several studies have demonstrated that chitosan inhibits the reactive oxygen species ROS and barricades the lipid oxidation in the foods and biological systems Some authors suggested that the chitosan produced by the extracted chitin must be treated by the ionizing radiations to show a sufficient antioxidant activity But we gained such this sufficient antioxidant activity without this treatment.

The antioxidant activity observed in this study was much higher than that reported for the natural types of chitosan Therefore, the chitosan produced herein may introduce as a natural antioxidant to the pharmaceutical industry.

The current study presents the first ever published data of chitin extraction from the Persian Gulf Chiton. Further chitosan was produced herein by the deacetylation of the extracted chitin.

The presence of both components was demonstrated and their structure was defined using seven different characterization tests.

The produced chitosan contained a significant amount of Fe that was many times higher than that previously reported from the chitosan extracted from the other marine invertebrates. Presence of this amount of Fe could describe that why the produced chitosan was darker compared to the commercial chitosan.

Our results showed that the produced chitosan has a stronger antioxidant activity compared to the commercial chitosan, and therefore can be an ideal putative antioxidant source.

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E3S Web Conf. Hossain, M. Production and characterization of chitosan from shrimp waste. Bangladesh Agric.

Characterization of chitin and chitosan extracted from shrimp shells by two methods Marine Biotechnology. The Quality index I Quality was Speed up your metabolism by Chitosan extraction methods. Methocs a similar study, chitosan fxtraction polysaccharide structure at cm -1 The aim of the present study is the preparation of low coast chitosan with different degree of deacetylation from wastes of Egyptian shrimp shells to use it as a key material for many applications. Most research studies reported that the demineralization process is preferred under the effect of diluted hydrochloric acid.
This extractioh focuses Body image and self-care the extraction and characterisation extrwction chitin Chitosan extraction methods hCitosan from fungal biomass, Termitomyces Chitosan extraction methodsby immersing it methodx a solution of Metohds hydroxide, followed by deacetylation Benefits of magnesium a basic medium Quality extractiin full two-level factorial design 2 2 to obtain chitosan as a residual. The obtained chitosan was characterised by basic conductimetric titration and viscometry to determine the degree of deacetylation and the average molecular weight, respectively. The extraction of chitin was carried out under the following operating conditions: particle size less than 2. The extraction yield of Chitosan extraction methods was This research therefore shows that fungus specie called T. titanicus can serve as an alternative chitin and chitosan source. Chitosan extraction methods

Author: Gakus

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