Category: Diet

Carb-restricted diets

Carb-restricted diets

Back to Dieta menu Carb-restricted diets tips Back to How to Roast Think Clearly and Stay Alert Seasonal calendar Conversion guides Glossary. Archived from the original PDF on 4 April Andreas Eenfeldt, MDmedical review by Dr. Carb-restricted diets

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What happens when you stop eating carbs

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One Glucose monitoring device of low-carbohydrate diet called the ketogenic diet Think Clearly and Stay Alert first established as a medical diet for treating epilepsy.

The macronutrient Carb-restricted diets of low-carbohydrate diets Mold prevention techniques not standardized. There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for Healthy fat consumption, and that high-fiber slow- digesting carbohydrate-rich foods Energy boosting tips for busy individuals healthful while highly refined and sugary foods are less Carb-rsetricted.

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People Carb-retsricted the diet should be informed that it may worsen LDL-C levels and Carb-restrictes health in the long-term. Those with atherosclerosis should be counseled to avoid low-carbohydrate diets. There Turmeric for memory improvement limited Carbb-restricted for dietx effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets for people with Car-restricted 1 diabetes.

This can be hard to maintain and there are concerns about potential adverse health effects caused Carb-restrictfd the diet. The proportion of carbohydrate in a diet is not Cxrb-restricted to Metabolism-boosting metabolism risk of type 2 diabetesalthough there is Carb-festricted evidence that diets containing certain high-carbohydrate items — such as sugar-sweetened Carb-restricyed or white rice Greek yogurt for diabetics are associated with an Sports drink recommendations risk.

A consensus report on nutrition xiets for adults with diabetes and prediabetes the American Diabetes Association ADA states "Reducing overall carbohydrate intake for individuals with diabetes has demonstrated the most evidence for improving glycemia blood sugar and may be applied in a variety of eating patterns that meet individual needs and preferences.

Limiting carbohydrate consumption generally results in improved glucose control, although without long-term weight loss. A umbrella review found that low-carbohydrate diets are no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate or low-fat diets in diabetic patients.

A low-carbohydrate diet has been found to reduce endurance capacity for intense exercise efforts, [41] [42] and depleted muscle glycogen following such efforts is only slowly replenished if a low-carbohydrate diet is taken.

Inadequate carbohydrate intake during athletic training causes metabolic acidosiswhich may be responsible for the impaired performance which has been observed.

A low-carbohydrate diet causes extensive metabolism of fatty acids, which are used by the liver to make ketone bodieswhich provide energy to important organs, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, in a condition called ketosis. Ketosis can have other causes such as alcoholism and diabetes.

Excessive accumulation of ketone bodies occurs when its production is greater than consumption, leading to ketoacidosisa potentially life-threatening condition.

Rarely, a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet can also give rise to ketoacidosis, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. High and low-carbohydrate diets that are rich in animal-derived proteins and fats may be associated with increased mortality. Conversely, with plant-derived proteins and fats, there may be a decrease of mortality.

The study included 90, participants with a median 17 years of follow-up. The study found that a high adherence to low-carb eating was associated with increased overall cancer risk. Looking at the diet composition the authors found that eating more animals foods was associated with an increased cancer risk while plant fat consumption was not.

As of [update]research has paid insufficient attention to the potential adverse effects of carbohydrate restricted dieting, particularly for micronutrient sufficiency, bone health and cancer risk. In a comprehensive systematic review ofChuruangsuk and colleagues reported that other case reports give rise to concerns of other potential risks of low-carbohydrate dieting including hyperosmolar comaWernicke's encephalopathyoptic neuropathy from thiamine deficiencyacute coronary syndrome and anxiety disorder.

Significantly restricting the proportion of carbohydrate in diet risks causing malnutritionand can make it difficult to get enough dietary fiber to stay healthy. As ofit appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates consumed are important; diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets high in refined grains.

InJohn Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications.

A very low-carbohydrate diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the nineteenth century. InWilliam Bantinga formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up breadbuttermilksugarbeerand potatoes.

Physicians who advocated a low-carbohydrate diet consisting of large amounts of animal fat and protein to treat diabetes in the late s include James Lomax BardsleyApollinaire Bouchardat and Frederick William Pavy.

In the early s Frederick Madison Allen developed a highly restrictive short term regime which was described by Walter R. Steiner at the annual convention of the Connecticut State Medical Society as The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus.

Atkins' Diet Revolutionwhich advocated the low-carbohydrate diet he had successfully used in treating people in the s. The concept of the glycemic index was developed in by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates.

This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels — with fast-digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower-digesting complex carbohydratessuch as whole grainsa slower one.

InAtkins published an update from his book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolutionand other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles. The original ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet developed in the s and used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy.

The premise of the weight-loss ketogenic diet is that if the body is deprived of glucose obtained from carbohydrate foods, it will produce energy from stored fat.

A review looked at a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet that was high in fat but low in protein. It found that it was an effective means for weight loss in those who are overweight or obese, yielding an average weight loss of 10 kg over four weeks, with maintenance of the weight loss for up to two years.

However, concerns about serum sodium levels led the authors to propose the diet only be used in "selected" people, and under strict medical supervision. In the American Heart Association issued a scientific statement on dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health which noted that "there is insufficient evidence to support any existing popular or fad diets such as the ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting to promote heart health".

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. This is the latest accepted revisionreviewed on 29 January Diets restricting carbohydrate consumption. This article is about low-carbohydrate dieting as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss.

For information on low-carbohydrate dieting as a therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet. Further information: Atkins diet. For the epilepsy treatment, see Ketogenic diet.

Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Travelling on a low-carbohydrate diet. Bernstein — American physician. March Diabetic Medicine Review. doi : PMID S2CID There is limited evidence to support their routine use in the management of Type 1 diabetes.

American Family Physician. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 23 February Gastroenterology Review.

Archived PDF from the original on 19 July Retrieved 24 October British Dietetic Association. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 6 February The British Dietetic Association BDA today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.

Dietary therapies for epilepsy. Biomed J. August

: Carb-restricted diets

12 Popular Low-Carb Diets, and Their Pros and Cons

Therefore, lifestyle modifications, including calorie-restricted diets, are suggested as the first-choice treatment for obesity management 7 , 8. Some pieces of evidence, however, suggest that variations in dietary macronutrient composition, independent of energy intake, may favorably affect body weight 9 — Restricted-carbohydrate diets have been a popular dietary approach to reduce energy intake and body weight.

An extensive body of evidence presented by a large number of systematic reviews and pairwise meta-analyses of intervention studies supports the fact that carbohydrate-restricted diets are effective interventions for short-term weight loss in adults 12 — Carbohydrate-restricted diets can reduce body weight by reducing appetite via the production of ketone bodies, increasing energy expenditure and insulin sensitivity, and stimulating lipolysis A recent network meta-analysis of randomized trials suggested that carbohydrate-restricted diets are superior to other structured dietary programs, such as low-fat diets, in reducing body weight in adults with overweight and obesity However, despite the large body of evidence, the optimum degree of carbohydrate restriction for implementing the most effective weight-loss interventions in adults with overweight and obesity is still unclear.

It is not well determined how well body weight changes with the decrease in carbohydrate intake at the short- and long-term follow-ups. In addition, previous meta-analyses have mainly failed to control for potential effect modification by calorie restriction, exercise programs, and protein intake.

Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential dose-dependent effects of carbohydrate restriction on body weight by performing a dose—response meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials RCTs of carbohydrate-restricted diets in adults with overweight and obesity.

This systematic review followed the guidelines from the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions 28 and adhered to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses PRISMA statement The review protocol was registered in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews PROSPERO, registration number CRD We searched PubMed, Scopus, Web of Science, and CENTRAL to May with a predefined combination of text-word and medical subject heading MeSH terms provided in Supplementary Table S1.

We did not place restrictions on keywords in terms of outcomes to include all potential eligible trials with weight loss as either a primary or secondary outcome. The reference lists of the previous reviews and eligible primary trials were also searched to identify further relevant trials.

Title, abstract, and full-text articles were screened according to the pre-specified inclusion and exclusion criteria by the two independent investigators SS and AJ.

Discrepancies were resolved by consensus. The Cochrane tool for risk of bias assessment was used to assess the methodological quality of the trials Each study was given a quality score of low, high, or unclear based on the five following domains: 1 random sequence generation, 2 allocation concealment both of them assessed selection bias , 3 blinding of participants and personnel assessed performance bias , 4 blinding of outcome assessors assessed detection bias , 5 incomplete outcome data assessed attrition bias , and 6 selective reporting assessed reporting bias Supplementary Text S1.

Accordingly, trials were rated as having a low risk of bias if all six domains were rated as low risk , some concerns if one of the first four domains and one from another domain were rated unclear , or a high risk of bias if at least one domain was rated high risk, two of the first four domains or more than three domains were rated unclear.

First, we calculated the change in body weight from baseline values in each study arm in each trial. For trials that did not report the mean values and SDs of changes in text or graphs, we calculated these values using data from measures before and after the intervention, according to the instructions outlined in the Cochrane Handbook The correlation coefficient was estimated based on studies that reported the SD values of baseline weights, final weights, and changes from baseline.

For trials wherein change in body weight was reported in forms other than mean and SD e. Maximum likelihood estimation was used to estimate the measures. The Wald test was used to assess deviations from linearity. The significance of the Wald test determined that a non-linear model was the best fit.

Trial-specific results were pooled using the DerSimonian and Laird random-effects model For trials that reported carbohydrate intake as a range, the midpoint of the lower and upper bounds of dietary carbohydrate intake was used. The amount of dietary carbohydrates that was extracted for the analyses was based on actual self-reported dietary intake in each trial unless trials reported only the prescribed dietary carbohydrate.

The Q-test was used to investigate the level of heterogeneity, and the I 2 index was used to measure its magnitude. We assessed the subgroup differences as credible based on eight criteria introduced by the Instrument to Assess the Credibility of Effect Modification Analyses ICEMAN 41 Supplementary Table S2.

We ran sensitivity analyses by excluding studies one by one to evaluate the stability of the pooled results. Statistical analyses were conducted using STATA version A two-tailed p -value of less than 0. The certainty of the evidence was assessed through the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation GRADE approach 43 , Briefly, evidence obtained from randomized trials that were initially considered as having high certainty could be downgraded by a serious risk of bias, inconsistency, indirectness, imprecision, and evidence of publication bias Supplementary Text S2.

The evidence could also be upgraded due to the large effect size and the presence of a dose—response gradient. Overall quality assessment was conducted independently by two authors SS and AJ.

Discrepancies were resolved through discussion to reach a consensus. We initially identified 20, studies. After initial screening and duplicate removal, records remained, of which were excluded for the reasons presented in Supplementary Table S3.

Finally, studies were selected for the present meta-analysis. The flowchart of the study selection procedure that followed the literature search is summarized in Supplementary Figure S1. In all, 37 trials did not report the random sequence generation methods, while 70 trials did not describe details of the allocation concealment.

However, as body weight was measured objectively, it is highly unlikely that this affected the findings. Of the trials that met our inclusion criteria, were parallel RCTs and 3 were cross-over RCTs.

Trials were published between and All trials were conducted exclusively with participants who were overweight or obese, with a BMI ranging from 25 to A total of 9 trials included only men, 24 included only women, and the remainder included both men and women.

The mean age of the participants varied between 20 and An overview of the study characteristics is presented in Supplementary Table S5 , and the macronutrient composition of the diets across study arms in each trial is presented in Supplementary Table S6. The effect of carbohydrate-restricted diets on weight loss did not surpass the threshold set as MCID in the main analysis; however, it did exceed that threshold 4.

Figure 1. Dose-dependent effect of change in body weight according to carbohydrate restriction in overweight and obese participants at 6-month follow-up red line , trials with calorie restriction green line , and trials with an exercise program blue line.

Changes in the body weight y-axis are presented as means kg. Table 1. There was a non-linear reduction in body weight with the decrease in carbohydrate intake from The results in the subgroup of trials with calorie restriction Figure 2 , middle panel and exercise program Figure 2 , lower panel indicated relatively similar findings with the main analysis.

Table 2. Figure 2. Dose-dependent effect of change in body weight according to carbohydrate restriction in overweight and obese participants at month follow-up upper panel , trials with calorie restriction middle panel , and trials with an exercise program lower panel.

Table 3. Figure 3. Dose-dependent effect of change in body weight according to carbohydrate restriction in overweight and obese participants at follow-up longer than month follow-up. At the 6-month follow-up, the results were the same across subgroups defined by risk of bias Supplementary Table S7.

There was no credible subgroup difference in the subgroup analyses based on the eight criteria introduced by ICEMAN Supplementary Table S8. The results of the GRADE assessment are indicated in Supplementary Table S The certainty of the evidence was rated high at the 6-month follow-up due to a downgrade for inconsistency and an upgrade for dose—response gradient.

At the 6-month follow-up, the effects of carbohydrate restriction did not exceed the MCID threshold for body weight 4. At the month follow-up, carbohydrate restriction resulted in a clinically important reduction in body weight, larger than the MCID threshold, in the main analysis and in trials that implemented calorie restriction Table 2.

The reported adverse effects related to a carbohydrate-restricted diet are shown in Table 4. At 6-month follow-up, carbohydrate restriction significantly increased hair loss by 16 per patients risk difference: 0.

Carbohydrate restriction had no effect on other adverse events. The present dose—response meta-analysis suggests that a reduction in carbohydrate intake can be effective in producing clinically important weight loss at short- and moderate-term follow-ups.

Non-linear dose—response meta-analyses indicated that body weight decreased proportionally along with the decrease in carbohydrate intake at 6-month and month follow-ups, especially when coupled with an exercise program and calorie restriction.

Dietary strategies to lose weight have predominantly focused on calorie restriction, mainly through the restriction of dietary carbohydrates or fats In line with our findings, most of the previous studies agree that in the short term, low-carbohydrate diets are more effective in losing weight, while in the long term, there is not much difference between weight-loss diets.

Another meta-analysis of five randomized trials with patients indicated a significant weight loss following a carbohydrate-restricted diet at the 6-month follow-up, but not at month follow-up Furthermore, a meta-analysis of 13 trials found a 4. The reduced effect of low-carbohydrate diets on losing weight in the long term is mainly associated with reduced adherence Moreover, the craving for sweet tastes is removed in low-carbohydrate diets, the pleasure of eating is reduced, and dietary choices are more limited in carbohydrate-restricted diets, all of which make these diets more difficult to maintain in the long term Focus on the short-term can lead to treatment failure and to weight being regained, which can result in demotivation and decreased self-esteem.

Furthermore, the physiological responses to losing weight are another causative factor in weight plateau and weight regain in long-term weight management plans.

Behavioral interventions for obesity treatment, for instance, calorie restriction, lead to an initial rapid weight reduction, followed by slowing down of weight loss and even weight regain to the baseline due to the decreased body metabolism and energy expenditure However, low-carbohydrate diets are still popular for losing weight.

This effect is mostly explained through the carbohydrate—insulin model, suggesting hyperinsulinemia after high-carbohydrate food consumption, which, in turn, increases fat storage and body weight Moreover, the production of ketone bodies in response to carbohydrate deprivation can suppress appetite and decrease food intake Other related mechanisms including increased energy expenditure and decreased ghrelin and leptin levels following carbohydrate restriction may partly mediate the weight-loss effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets This effect may be enhanced when carbohydrate restriction is accompanied by calorie restriction or an exercise program.

The subgroup analyses suggested that the weight-reducing effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets increased when coupled with calorie restriction and exercise programs; however, the observed subgroup differences were not statistically significant, and the credibility of subgroup differences was rated as low, suggesting that carbohydrate restriction, regardless of calorie restriction and exercise program, can exert a significant reduction in body weight.

Although there are a few concerns in relation to low-carbohydrate diets, they are related to the potential side effects. There is some evidence that carbohydrate-restricted diets, which are also high in protein or fat, can lead to nutritional deficiency and dysbiosis 53 , gastrointestinal complications 54 , hyperuricemia 55 , renal impairment 56 , osteoporosis 54 , and increased blood cholesterol However, there is no firm evidence indicating an increased risk of nutrient deficiency following a low-carbohydrate diet.

Our study also suggested that the adverse effects of low-carbohydrate diets were generally mild to moderate, including hair loss and muscle cramps. There are several meta-analyses of randomized trials addressing the weight-loss effects of carbohydrate-restricted diets 12 — 22 ; However, none of the previous reviews investigated how much carbohydrate restriction has greater advantages for weight loss in adults with overweight or obesity.

However, the present study provided new insights into this topic. An important and unanswered question regarding the effect of carbohydrate-restricted diets on body weight was how much carbohydrate intake has the greatest effect on weight loss and whether this effect lasts for a long time.

To answer this question, we used a novel statistical approach to determine how well body weight changes along with the decrease in carbohydrate intake. Our dose—response meta-analysis indicated that body weight decreased proportionally along with the decrease in carbohydrate intake.

However, some limitations should be addressed when interpreting the results. The main limitation of the present study is related to the large heterogeneity in the data, which remained unexplained in the subgroup analyses. It seems that the observed heterogeneity can be explained by potential differences in the type of carbohydrate intake simple or complex , medications, degree of physical activity, and calorie intake across trials.

We included a large number of trials in the analyses, and in such cases, even a small difference in effect estimates can lead to a large heterogeneity in the data In addition, all trials included in the present meta-analysis were consistent in terms of the PICOS population, intervention or exposure, comparator, outcome, and study design framework Therefore, the heterogeneity observed in the data was statistical heterogeneity rather than clinical or methodological heterogeneity.

Second, we did not evaluate the effect of carbohydrate restriction on other anthropometric measures. Examining other outcomes, such as body composition measures, can also be helpful in interpreting the results. Although it is reported that intentional weight reduction is associated with improvement in body fat mass, investigating the effects of carbohydrate restriction on lean body mass can provide stronger evidence to assess the effectiveness of the intervention 14 , Moreover, due to inadequate information, we could not examine the effect of dietary intervention on the grade of obesity.

Although we tried to assess the effect of calorie restriction using subgroup and sensitivity analyses, the difference in the degree of calorie restriction may also affect the results.

We also performed a subgroup analysis by control diet; however, the potential difference in the control diets across trials may have affected the results. Another important limitation is related to the source of macronutrients. We assessed the effect of the quantity of carbohydrate intake, and thus, due to the inadequate data, the type of carbohydrate was not considered in the analyses.

Moreover, the quality of the diet in the intervention arm, dietary sources of protein or fats, and micronutrients may also affect body weight, which was not considered in most of the included studies. Finally, there is a need for trials with a longer duration of intervention to assess the effect of dietary composition on body weight and other health-related outcomes.

The present study showed that at 6- and month follow-ups, body weight decreased proportionally with the decrease in carbohydrate intake. Carbohydrate-restricted diet exerted a significant and clinically important reduction in body weight at both 6-month and month endpoints, especially when coupled with calorie restriction and physical activity.

Further studies are needed to explore the effect of other macronutrient intakes and eating behaviors on the efficacy of low-carbohydrate diets. This study was supported by the Shahid Sadoughi University of Medical Sciences, Yazd, Iran.

The funding source played no role in the study design, in the collection, analysis, and interpretation of data; in the writing of the report, or in the decision to submit the article for publication. The authors would like to thank the research council of the Nutrition and Food Security Research Center for their scientific support.

The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

The author s declared that they were an editorial board member of Frontiers, at the time of submission. This had no impact on the peer review process and the final decision.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. CI, confidence interval; GRADE, Grading of Recommendations, Assessment, Development and Evaluations; ICEMAN, Instrument to assess the Credibility of Effect Modification ANalyses; MCID, minimal clinically important difference; MeSH, Medical subject headings terms; PICOS, Participant, intervention, comparison, outcome, and study design; PRISMA, Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses; PROSPERO, Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews.

GBD Obesity CollaboratorsAfshin, A, Forouzanfar, MH, Reitsma, MB, Sur, P, Estep, K, et al. Health effects of overweight and obesity in countries over 25 years. N Engl J Med. doi: PubMed Abstract CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Jayedi, A, Soltani, S, Zargar, MS, Khan, TA, and Shab-Bidar, S.

Central fatness and risk of all cause mortality: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of 72 prospective cohort studies. CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Jayedi, A, Soltani, S, Motlagh, SZ, Emadi, A, Shahinfar, H, Moosavi, H, et al.

Anthropometric and adiposity indicators and risk of type 2 diabetes: systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of cohort studies. Jayedi, A, Khan, TA, Aune, D, Emadi, A, and Shab-Bidar, S.

Body fat and risk of all-cause mortality: a systematic review and dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. Int J Obes Lond. Jayedi, A, Rashidy-Pour, A, Soltani, S, Zargar, MS, Emadi, A, and Shab-Bidar, S. Adult weight gain and the risk of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review and dose—response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

Eur J Clin Nutr. Hall, KD, Farooqi, IS, Friedman, JM, Klein, S, Loos, RJ, Mangelsdorf, DJ, et al. The energy balance model of obesity: beyond calories in, calories out. AM J Clin Nutr. Koliaki, C, Spinos, T, Spinou, Μ, Brinia, Μ-E, Mitsopoulou, D, and Katsilambros, N eds.

Defining the optimal dietary approach for safe, effective and sustainable weight loss in overweight and obese adults. Jensen, MD, Ryan, DH, Apovian, CM, Ard, JD, Comuzzie, AG, Donato, KA, et al.

Krieger, JW, Sitren, HS, Daniels, MJ, and Langkamp-Henken, B. Effects of variation in protein and carbohydrate intake on body mass and composition during energy restriction: a meta-regression. Am J Clin Nutr. Young, CM, Scanlan, SS, Im, HS, and Lutwak, L. Effect on body composition and other parameters in obese young men of carbohydrate level of reduction diet.

Volek, JS, Sharman, MJ, Gómez, AL, Judelson, DA, Rubin, MR, Watson, G, et al. Comparison of energy-restricted very low-carbohydrate and low-fat diets on weight loss and body composition in overweight men and women.

Nutr Metab Lond. Bueno, NB, de Melo, IS, de Oliveira, SL, and da Rocha, AT. Very-low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet v. low-fat diet for long-term weight loss: a meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials. Br J Nutr.

Though guidelines can vary, low carb diets typically limit foods high in carbs or added sugar. A low carb diet restricts carbohydrates, such as those found in pasta, bread, and sugary foods. There are many different types of low carb diets. This is a detailed meal plan for a low carb diet.

It explains what to eat and what to limit. It also includes a sample low carb menu for 3 days. Low carb diets have been associated with several health benefits.

People often use them to support weight loss and manage blood sugar levels. There are several types of low carb diets, and they differ based on the amount of carbs permitted each day.

For those following a calorie diet , this equals fewer than grams g of carbs per day. Generally, low carb diets limit foods high in carbs or added sugar, including sweets, starches, and refined grains. Even higher carb foods like fruits, starchy vegetables, and whole grains can fit into some low carb diets in moderation.

Dark chocolate is high in antioxidants and may benefit your health if you eat it in moderation. In addition, you can drink dry wines with no added sugar or carbs. Just be aware that both dark chocolate and alcohol may hinder weight management if you eat or drink too much.

Because many beverages can be high in carbs and calories, consider choosing drinks free of added sugar whenever possible such as coffee, tea, or sugar-free sparkling water.

That said, ask a doctor or dietitian what carbohydrate allowance works best for you based on your health goals and personal preferences. To see more examples of go-to meals, check out this article on 7 healthy low carb meals in under 10 minutes.

If you get hungry between meals, here are some healthy, easy-to-prepare, low carb snacks that can fill you up:. Following a low carb diet while dining out can be challenging. Not only are the portion sizes often very large, but some restaurant foods are served with condiments, sauces, or side dishes that are high in added sugar or carbs.

That said, your body does need some carbs, so avoiding them entirely, unless directed by your doctor, may not be the best for your health. Learn about the zero-carb diet. To stay under 20 grams of carbs a day , fill yourself up with lots of vegetables, proteins, and healthy fats. You can follow a low carb diet as a vegetarian, but it can be more challenging because most plant-based protein foods also contain carbs.

Learn more about how to eat low carb as a vegetarian or vegan. Research shows that following a low carb diet while living with diabetes can help you manage the disease.

Eating low carb with diabetes is similar to eating low carb without diabetes. You can generally eat and avoid the same foods. There are several types of low carb diets, which vary in terms of the amount of carbs permitted per day.

Generally, low carb diets limit your intake of carbs, such as those found in sugary and processed foods, pasta, and bread. Instead, they encourage a variety of non-starchy vegetables and foods high in protein and fat. For some people, low carb diets may help support weight loss and improve blood sugar control.

The above meal plan gives you the basics of healthy, low carb eating and can be adjusted based on your dietary needs and preferences. Discover healthy low carb recipes that taste incredible. You can make several simple swaps in your current diet to help cut back on carbs.

Discover a few easy ways to eat fewer carbs. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available. VIEW ALL HISTORY. People often stop losing before they reach their desired weight. If you're on a low-carb diet but not losing weight, here are 15 things you can try.

A low carb diet can help you lose weight and improve health. Learn 14 foods you need to limit or avoid on a low carb diet. A list of healthy low-carb recipes with photos and instructions.

2. What to eat on a low carb diet According to one study , the high-protein initial phase of the diet could increase the risk of developing kidney stones as an unpleasant side effect. Beneficial effects on blood lipids and insulin resistance are due to the weight loss, not to the change in caloric composition. That depends. There was also a small RCT in healthy volunteers demonstrating side effects lasting up to 17 days. Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli , spinach , kale , lettuce , cucumbers , cauliflower , Brussels sprouts , peppers and most green-leafy vegetables. Fad diets. A zero-carb diet is lacking in some important nutrients, such as vitamin C and fiber.
Low-carb diet and meal plan | Eating with diabetes | Diabetes UK

This article covers different low carb food options and tips for creating a sustainable diet plan. However, this does not mean a person necessarily needs to reduce the overall volume of their meals.

To ensure they meet their calorie and nutrition needs, people can prioritize low carb foods such as:. Discover more low carb foods here. Many people find following a low carb diet challenging, particularly at the beginning of the diet. The following low carb diet tips might help people stick to their diet and may help them lose weight successfully.

Carbs come in different forms. Simple carbs consist of easy-to-digest sugars. Refined and processed carbs , such as white sugar and white flour, are simple carbs.

Complex carbs take longer to digest than simple carbs, as they need to be broken down into simpler forms. Complex carbs are found in more nutrient-rich foods, such as beans, whole grains, and fiber-rich fruits, such as bananas.

Complex carbs also have the added benefit of making a person feel full faster, which might prevent them from overeating. Complex carbs also make people feel full for longer, which might help them avoid snacking between meals. When eating a low carb diet, it is important to choose foods that have a lower carb count but a high nutritional value per serving.

The foods in the quantities listed below all contain approximately 15 g of carbs:. While the foods listed above all contain roughly equal amounts of carbohydrates, they are not all nutritionally equivalent. The dairy products on the list contain protein and vital nutrients, such as Vitamin D and calcium in addition to the carbohydrate content.

The fruit and vegetables also contain essential vitamins and minerals. Choosing whole-grain varieties of bread and rice will provide more nutrients than white varieties, even though the carb content is similar.

A meal plan can help make things easier. Anyone following a low carb diet could try mapping out their week and plan all meals before heading to the grocery store.

Learn more about the science behind weight-loss meal plans here. Planning is one thing, but preparing meals ahead of time can also help. Meal prep can help people stick to their diet plan and save time in busier periods.

Carb cycling involves eating very low carb foods for a set amount of days, followed by one day of eating higher-carb meals. This helps the body avoid fat-burning plateaus that can develop after weeks of low carb dieting.

Carb cycling is not for everyone, and anyone considering it should talk with their doctor or nutritionist first. Learn more about carb cycling here. People following a vegetarian or vegan diet may need to take additional steps to ensure they maintain adequate nutritional balance if reducing carb intake.

For example, some popular plant-based protein sources, such as chickpeas and lentils are naturally high in carbohydrates. Learn more here about eating a low carb diet as a vegetarian or vegan.

Many people follow low carb diets to lose or maintain weight. Research shows that eating a low carb diet increases energy expenditure during weight loss. Large reviews note that adopting a low carb diet can also have a positive effect on insulin management — making it an effective means of treating obesity and type 2 diabetes.

In a 2,calorie diet, this means a typical person takes in to 1, calories from carbs, or to g of carbs, per day. However, some researchers are warning that it may not be safe as a permanent eating approach. In one study , researchers concluded that people who ate the least amount of carbs had the highest risk of death from cardiovascular disease , stroke, and cancer.

RELATED: Which Is Better for Health and Weight Loss: Low-Carb or Low-Fat? Right off the bat, know that many of the fad low-carb diets lack research. But generally speaking, consuming about 50 to g of carbs a day is considered a basic low-carb diet, she says. It also gives you leeway to choose what carbs you want to include fruits, vegetables, dairy, whole grains, nuts , legumes, and seeds , rather than being on a plan that tells you what you need to eat and when.

There may be benefits to following this traditional plan. One study put obese adults who had metabolic syndrome a cluster of risk factors, like high blood pressure, high blood sugar, and excess belly fat, which increase the risk of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes, as the Mayo Clinic notes on low-, moderate-, or a high- carbohydrate diet for four weeks.

RELATED: Which Low-Carb Diet Is Best for People With Type 2 Diabetes? Specifically, she says most people need to stay under 30 g, but some active folks can go a bit higher. A major draw here is that you may lose a significant amount of weight quickly, and that can be initially motivating to see those results so quickly.

In the study, after about five months, keto dieters begin to regain the weight they lost. Carbs might make up about 25 percent of your calories, while fat accounts for over 60 percent.

That said, these researchers also noted that while low-carb, high-fat diets do help people lose weight, the long-term health benefits or risks are unknown, and more research needs to be done.

Many people do this type of low-carb diet for performance benefits during a workout. Proponents say it can teach your body to use fat for fuel, thereby providing a longer-lasting form of energy during extended bouts of endurance activities. That said, whether this diet really does boost performance is still up in the air, suggested one study.

RELATED: What the Keto Diet Will Do to Your Workout. When it comes to the low-carb craze, the Atkins diet started it all. On this plan, you start with a very-low, ketogenic-like intake and then gradually re-add carb sources, like vegetables and fruit.

As for how effective it is when stacked up against other diets, it may be the most effective — at least in the short-term. People following Atkins lost about 22 pounds in six months, per one meta-analysis.

A modified Atkins diet requires eating 10 percent of calories from carbohydrates, 30 percent from protein, and 60 percent from fat. The caveman-eating style focuses on eating fat and protein with fewer carbs. A benefit of a paleo eating plan is it emphasizes whole, unprocessed foods, she says. It can feel meat-heavy if you normally prefer a more plant-based diet.

To make sure it stays low-carb, focus on vegetables that fall naturally lower on the carb spectrum, like cucumbers, tomatoes, zucchini, and peppers. But in general, a paleo diet may help you lose weight, reduce belly fat, and lower blood pressure and lipid levels, according to some studies.

RELATED: 9 Rules Every Whole30 Beginner Should Follow. This one wins big points for health from Spritzler.

The benefits of a Mediterranean diet are vast, as research has shown that this style of eating is associated with a lower risk of developing or dying from cardiovascular disease. Research analyzing the benefits of a low-carb Mediterranean diet on diabetes suggests keeping carbohydrates to no more than 50 percent of your daily calories and getting at least 30 percent of your calories from fat, focusing on vegetables and whole grains as carb sources.

Among the cons of this diet are that there are a lot of rules to follow and you have to eat a lot of protein. According to one study , the high-protein initial phase of the diet could increase the risk of developing kidney stones as an unpleasant side effect.

RELATED: U. Unlike some of the other types of low-carb diets, which focus on health benefits, this one bills itself as a pure weight loss diet.

On the diet, you can get frozen and ready-to-eat South Beach Diet meals, along with some meals you make on your own. They also encourage you to buy South Beach Diet—branded snacks.

One study analyzed several popular diet plans, South Beach being one of them, and concluded that the diet is extremely low-calorie about 1, calories and did not offer a sufficient source of 21 out of 27 essential nutrients analyzed, including vitamin D, vitamin E, iron, magnesium , and zinc.

In this twist on a low-carb diet, carb cycling means that you alternate low-carb days 50 to g of carbs with high-carb days up to g of carbs , according to the American Council on Exercise. Keto cycling , for example, is a way of varying carb amounts on the keto diet. There is no good evidence that low-carbohydrate dieting confers any particular health benefits apart from weight loss , where low-carbohydrate diets achieve outcomes similar to other diets, as weight loss is mainly determined by calorie restriction and adherence.

One form of low-carbohydrate diet called the ketogenic diet was first established as a medical diet for treating epilepsy. The macronutrient ratios of low-carbohydrate diets are not standardized.

There is evidence that the quality, rather than the quantity, of carbohydrate in a diet is important for health, and that high-fiber slow- digesting carbohydrate-rich foods are healthful while highly refined and sugary foods are less so.

Most vegetables are low- or moderate-carbohydrate foods in some low-carbohydrate diets, fiber is excluded because it is not a nutritive carbohydrate.

Some vegetables, such as potatoes , carrots , maize corn and rice are high in starch. Most low-carbohydrate diet plans accommodate vegetables such as broccoli , spinach , kale , lettuce , cucumbers , cauliflower , Brussels sprouts , peppers and most green-leafy vegetables.

The National Academy of Medicine recommends a daily average of g of carbohydrates per day. Carbohydrate has been wrongly accused of being a uniquely "fattening" macronutrient , misleading many dieters into compromising the nutritiousness of their diet by eliminating carbohydrate-rich food.

The public [ who? Low-carbohydrate diet advocates including Gary Taubes and David Ludwig have proposed a "carbohydrate-insulin hypothesis" in which carbohydrates are said to be uniquely fattening because they raise insulin levels and cause fat to accumulate unduly.

It has been repeatedly found that in the long-term, all diets with the same calorific value perform the same for weight loss, except for the one differentiating factor of how well people can faithfully follow the dietary programme.

In the short and medium term, people taking a low-carbohydrate diet can experience more weight loss than people taking a low-fat diet. body-fat accumulation does not appear to be affected by even very pronounced changes in the amount of fat vs.

carbohydrate in the diet". Much of the research comparing low-fat vs. low-carbohydrate dieting has been of poor quality and studies which reported large effects have garnered disproportionate attention in comparison to those which are methodologically sound. Eating a low-carbohydrate diet for less than two years was found to not worsen markers for cardiovascular health.

The American College of Cardiology recommends a clinician-patient discussion for people who want to go on a very low-carbohydrate diet. People on the diet should be informed that it may worsen LDL-C levels and cardiovascular health in the long-term. Those with atherosclerosis should be counseled to avoid low-carbohydrate diets.

There is limited evidence for the effectiveness of low-carbohydrate diets for people with type 1 diabetes. This can be hard to maintain and there are concerns about potential adverse health effects caused by the diet.

The proportion of carbohydrate in a diet is not linked to the risk of type 2 diabetes , although there is some evidence that diets containing certain high-carbohydrate items — such as sugar-sweetened drinks or white rice — are associated with an increased risk.

A consensus report on nutrition therapy for adults with diabetes and prediabetes the American Diabetes Association ADA states "Reducing overall carbohydrate intake for individuals with diabetes has demonstrated the most evidence for improving glycemia blood sugar and may be applied in a variety of eating patterns that meet individual needs and preferences.

Limiting carbohydrate consumption generally results in improved glucose control, although without long-term weight loss. A umbrella review found that low-carbohydrate diets are no better for weight loss than higher-carbohydrate or low-fat diets in diabetic patients.

A low-carbohydrate diet has been found to reduce endurance capacity for intense exercise efforts, [41] [42] and depleted muscle glycogen following such efforts is only slowly replenished if a low-carbohydrate diet is taken.

Inadequate carbohydrate intake during athletic training causes metabolic acidosis , which may be responsible for the impaired performance which has been observed.

A low-carbohydrate diet causes extensive metabolism of fatty acids, which are used by the liver to make ketone bodies , which provide energy to important organs, including the brain, heart, and kidneys, in a condition called ketosis. Ketosis can have other causes such as alcoholism and diabetes.

Excessive accumulation of ketone bodies occurs when its production is greater than consumption, leading to ketoacidosis , a potentially life-threatening condition.

Rarely, a low-carbohydrate ketogenic diet can also give rise to ketoacidosis, especially in patients with comorbid conditions. High and low-carbohydrate diets that are rich in animal-derived proteins and fats may be associated with increased mortality. Conversely, with plant-derived proteins and fats, there may be a decrease of mortality.

The study included 90, participants with a median 17 years of follow-up. The study found that a high adherence to low-carb eating was associated with increased overall cancer risk.

Looking at the diet composition the authors found that eating more animals foods was associated with an increased cancer risk while plant fat consumption was not. As of [update] , research has paid insufficient attention to the potential adverse effects of carbohydrate restricted dieting, particularly for micronutrient sufficiency, bone health and cancer risk.

In a comprehensive systematic review of , Churuangsuk and colleagues reported that other case reports give rise to concerns of other potential risks of low-carbohydrate dieting including hyperosmolar coma , Wernicke's encephalopathy , optic neuropathy from thiamine deficiency , acute coronary syndrome and anxiety disorder.

Significantly restricting the proportion of carbohydrate in diet risks causing malnutrition , and can make it difficult to get enough dietary fiber to stay healthy. As of , it appeared that with respect to the risk of death for people with cardiovascular disease, the kind of carbohydrates consumed are important; diets relatively higher in fiber and whole grains lead to reduced risk of death from cardiovascular disease compared to diets high in refined grains.

In , John Rollo reported on the results of treating two diabetic Army officers with a low-carbohydrate diet and medications. A very low-carbohydrate diet was the standard treatment for diabetes throughout the nineteenth century.

In , William Banting , a formerly obese English undertaker and coffin maker, published "Letter on Corpulence Addressed to the Public", in which he described a diet for weight control giving up bread , butter , milk , sugar , beer , and potatoes.

Physicians who advocated a low-carbohydrate diet consisting of large amounts of animal fat and protein to treat diabetes in the late s include James Lomax Bardsley , Apollinaire Bouchardat and Frederick William Pavy. In the early s Frederick Madison Allen developed a highly restrictive short term regime which was described by Walter R.

Steiner at the annual convention of the Connecticut State Medical Society as The Starvation Treatment of Diabetes Mellitus. Atkins' Diet Revolution , which advocated the low-carbohydrate diet he had successfully used in treating people in the s. The concept of the glycemic index was developed in by David Jenkins to account for variances in speed of digestion of different types of carbohydrates.

This concept classifies foods according to the rapidity of their effect on blood sugar levels — with fast-digesting simple carbohydrates causing a sharper increase and slower-digesting complex carbohydrates , such as whole grains , a slower one.

In , Atkins published an update from his book, Dr. Atkins' New Diet Revolution , and other doctors began to publish books based on the same principles. The original ketogenic diet is a high-fat, low-carbohydrate diet developed in the s and used to treat drug-resistant childhood epilepsy.

The premise of the weight-loss ketogenic diet is that if the body is deprived of glucose obtained from carbohydrate foods, it will produce energy from stored fat.

A review looked at a very low carbohydrate ketogenic diet that was high in fat but low in protein. It found that it was an effective means for weight loss in those who are overweight or obese, yielding an average weight loss of 10 kg over four weeks, with maintenance of the weight loss for up to two years.

However, concerns about serum sodium levels led the authors to propose the diet only be used in "selected" people, and under strict medical supervision. In the American Heart Association issued a scientific statement on dietary guidance to improve cardiovascular health which noted that "there is insufficient evidence to support any existing popular or fad diets such as the ketogenic diet and intermittent fasting to promote heart health".

Contents move to sidebar hide. Article Talk. Read Edit View history. Tools Tools. What links here Related changes Upload file Special pages Permanent link Page information Cite this page Get shortened URL Download QR code Wikidata item.

Download as PDF Printable version. In other projects. Wikimedia Commons Wikivoyage. This is the latest accepted revision , reviewed on 29 January Diets restricting carbohydrate consumption. This article is about low-carbohydrate dieting as a lifestyle choice or for weight loss.

For information on low-carbohydrate dieting as a therapy for epilepsy, see Ketogenic diet. Further information: Atkins diet.

For the epilepsy treatment, see Ketogenic diet. Wikivoyage has a travel guide for Travelling on a low-carbohydrate diet. Bernstein — American physician. March Diabetic Medicine Review. doi : PMID S2CID There is limited evidence to support their routine use in the management of Type 1 diabetes.

American Family Physician. Archived from the original on 13 February Retrieved 23 February Gastroenterology Review.

Archived PDF from the original on 19 July Retrieved 24 October British Dietetic Association. Archived from the original on 6 February Retrieved 6 February The British Dietetic Association BDA today revealed its much-anticipated annual list of celebrity diets to avoid in The line-up this year includes Raw Vegan, Alkaline, Pioppi and Ketogenic diets as well as Katie Price's Nutritional Supplements.

A low carb diet for beginners Women under Anyone familiar with a low-carb diet will have come across net carbs — it refers to the amount of carbs that are absorbed by the body and contribute to calories. Health Conditions Discover Plan Connect. Evidence abounds that low-carbohydrate diets present no significant advantage over more traditional energy-restricted, nutritionally balanced diets both in terms of weight loss and weight maintenance. Homemade chicken stock. For example, beneficial gut bacteria break down fibre in the gut to produce short-chain fatty acids SCFAs which keep your gut healthy and have wider implications for insulin management, weight and immune function.
Low carb diets limit the number Crb-restricted carbohydrates Energy-saving tips person eats. Fuel Consumption Management people may find Carb-eestricted low carb Carb-restricted diets aid weight management, but Carb-estricted may find them Carb-restrocted long-term. Carbohydrates or carbs are one Think Clearly and Stay Alert three main food types that the body needs to work properly. The other two are protein and fat. Carbs are an essential energy source, but if a person consumes more than they require, the body stores them as fats. Research shows that lowering carb intake can aid weight loss. However, a low carb diet is not a one-size-fits-all means of weight loss and may not be suitable for everyone.

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