Category: Diet

Optimizing nutrient utilization

Optimizing nutrient utilization

Soil structure, Opgimizing, and Optinizing are all physical properties positively affected by holistic land management practices. The fungus Glomus iranicum var. Mitigation of drought stress in maize through inoculation with drought tolerant ACC deaminase containing PGPR under axenic conditions.

Optimizing nutrient utilization -

The water table in the study area is located at a depth of more than 20 m. During the two growing seasons, meteorological data were obtained from automatic weather stations installed at the experimental station and from the Minle County Meteorological Bureau.

Figure 2 shows the precipitation, and daily maximum and minimum temperatures in the study area from May to August in and In and , the average daily maximum temperature was The total precipitation in and was A high-rainfall event of more than 15 mm occurred on July 15, Figure 2 Precipitation, daily maximum temperature, and daily minimum temperature in the study area from May to August in A and B.

In this study, a complete block design was adopted with nine combinations of water and nitrogen treatments and one control. The field trial was designed as a two-factor test, with irrigation level as the main factor and nitrogen application rate as the secondary factor.

Based on plant characteristics, the growth period of eggplant was divided into four stages, comprising seedling May 9—June 8, ; May 11—June 3, , flowering and fruit set June 4—July 5, ; June 4—July 5, , fruit development July 6—August 2, ; July 6—August 2, , and fruit ripening August 3—August 28, ; August 3—August 30, The mild and moderate water deficit applications were applied at the flowering and fruit set stage, whereas the adequate water supply was provided at the other growth stages.

The adequate water supply W0 and no nitrogen application N0 combination was applied as the control CK. Three replications were performed for all treatments, comprising a total of 30 plots, each of 12 m 2 2 m × 6 m.

The experimental treatments are summarized in Table 1. Table 1 Summary of the combinations of irrigation and nitrogen application rate treatments applied in the study. This cultivar has the advantages of high yield and strong resistance to disease. The eggplant seedlings were transplanted on May 9, and May 11, The plants were cultivated in an open field on ridges, each with two rows of plants, in combination with ridge mulching and mulched drip irrigation Figure 3.

Each plot comprised two ridges of length, width, and height of cm, 60 cm, and 20 cm, respectively. A drip irrigation belt was laid along the center of each ridge, which was then covered with plastic film of cm width of the film as a mulch. The discharge rate and drip hole distance of the drip irrigation belts were 2.

A gate valve with a pressure gauge and a water meter were installed on the branch pipe of each plot to adjust the water pressure and measure the water volume supplied. The eggplant seedlings were transplanted to both sides of the ridge, with spacing between rows and individual plants of 40 cm and 38 cm, respectively.

An impervious film was buried vertically in the soil to 60 cm depth between each plot to prevent water infiltration. The soil moisture content was measured every 5—7 days for each treatment.

When the soil moisture content was lower than the intended lower limit, it was irrigated to the intended upper limit. All plots in the 2-year trial were regularly subjected to uniform agronomic management, such as timely weed removal, and pest and disease prevention.

The fruit were harvested in four batches. The specific harvesting dates were July 15, August 1, August 15, and August 28 in , and July 15, July 31, August 14, and August 30 in The entire growth period in each growing season comprised days. Soil samples were collected at a location approximately 20 cm from the drip irrigation line in both growing seasons.

The soil moisture content in the 0— cm soil layer was measured at 20 cm depth. Crop evapotranspiration ET; mm was calculated using the following equation Yan et al. where P , I , U , D , R , and Δ W are the effective rainfall, irrigation volume, deep soil water supply to the tillage soil layer, deep seepage, surface runoff, and the variation in soil water storage within the 0— cm soil layer, respectively.

Hence, the formula for calculating crop evapotranspiration was adjusted to the following equation:. The ripe fruit in each plot were harvested separately and the mean yield of the three replications per treatment was calculated.

Water productivity was calculated using the following equation Pereira et al. The soluble sugar content SSC was determined using the anthrone colorimetric method Wang et al.

Soluble protein SP content was quantified with the Komas Brilliant Blue method Liu et al. Total soluble solids TSS content was measured using a digital pocket refractometer PAL-1, ATAGO, Tokyo, Japan.

Vitamin C Vc was detected using the 2,6-dichlorophenol indophenol sodium titration method Liu et al. The optimal irrigation and nitrogen application regime that provided the best trade-offs in crop ET, yield, fruit quality, WP, and PFPn was calculated using the TOPSIS method, which comprises the following five steps Luo and Li, :.

where Z ij is the standardization of x ij , and w j is the weight of the j th evaluation index. Analysis of variance ANOVA was performed using IBM SPSS Statistics Data processing and TOPSIS calculations were conducted using Microsoft Excel and Matlab b.

The figures were plotted using Origin The crop ET of all treatments in the 2-year experiment ranged from In , the W0N2 treatment had the highest ET In , the ET was highest in W0N3 The ET of W1N2 in Compared with the CK, the ET of the W1N2 treatment was significantly reduced by 3. The mean ET was strongly reduced with increment in the degree of water deficit.

At the N1, N2, and N3 nitrogen rates, no statistical differences in mean ET were observed. Figure 4 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on the crop evapotranspiration ET of eggplant. Table 2 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on crop evapotranspiration ET , yield, crop water productivity WP , and partial factor productivity of nitrogen PFPn of eggplant.

W1N2 had the highest yield, followed by W0N2, and no statistical difference between the yields of W1N2 and W0N2 was observed Figure 5. The yields of W1N2 and W0N2 were significantly increased by The yield of W2N3 was the lowest among all treatments in both growing seasons The mean yield tended to increase and then decrease with increment in degree of water deficit.

The highest yields were recorded at the W1 level The yield at the W1 level was significantly higher by 3. The mean yield tended to increase and then decrease with increment in nitrogen rate.

The maximum mean yield was attained at the N2 level, and was significantly higher than the yields at the other N levels.

No statistical difference between the mean yield at the N1 and N3 levels was observed. Figure 5 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on yield of eggplant. The WP for each treatment ranged from Among all treatments, WP was highest in W1N2 and lowest in the CK.

The WP was dramatically higher in and by At the same degree of water deficit, WP values tended to increase and then decrease with increment in nitrogen rate and the highest WP was observed at the N2 level.

At the W0 level, the WP of N2 was significantly increased by At the W1 level, the WP of N2 was significantly higher by At the W2 level, the WP of N2 was significantly higher by 5.

The changes in WP in were similar to those observed in At the same rate of nitrogen application, WP followed a tendency to increase and then decrease with aggravation of water deficit.

The mean WP did not differ dramatically between the W0 and W2 levels, whereas the WP at the W1 level was dramatically enhanced compared with those of the W0 and W2 levels. N2 had the highest mean WP. N1 and N3 showed no significant difference in mean WP, which was significantly lower by Figure 6 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on water productivity WP of eggplant.

The treatment with the highest PFPn was W0N1, followed by W1N1, and no statistical difference was observed between the PFPn of W0N1 and W1N1 Figure 7. The PFPn of W2N3 At the same degree of water deficit, PFPn showed a gradual decreasing trend with increment in the nitrogen rate.

The PFPn of the N1 and N3 levels declined dramatically with increase in degree of water deficit. In contrast, PFPn tended to increase and then decrease with increment in degree of water deficit at the N2 level.

The mean PFPn decreased with the increase in degree of water deficit. No statistical difference in mean PFPn was detected between the W0 and W1 levels, whereas the mean PFPn at the W2 level was significantly lower by The mean PFPn declined dramatically with increment in the rate of nitrogen application.

The mean PFPn at the N1 level was significantly higher by Figure 7 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on partial factor productivity of nitrogen PFPn of eggplant. The highest SSC was observed in the fruit of the W1N2 treatment 3.

The SSC of fruit treated with W1N2 was significantly increased by The W2N3 treatment had the lowest SSC 2. The SSC of W2N3 was significantly decreased by The mean SSC decreased gradually with increase in degree of water deficit in , but showed a tendency to rise and then decline with aggravation of water deficit degree in The mean SSC at the W0 level in was significantly higher by 3.

The mean SSC increased and then decreased with the increment in nitrogen rate. Figure 8 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on fruit quality of eggplant. A—D Describes changes in soluble sugar, soluble protein, soluble solid, and Vc content for and Table 3 Effect of irrigation and nitrogen application treatments on the contents of mean soluble sugar SSC , soluble protein SP , total soluble solids TSS , and vitamin C Vc of eggplant fruit.

The SP content of W1N2-treated fruit was the highest 2. The SP content was significantly reduced by 6. The W2N3 treatment had the lowest SP content, with a significant decrease of The mean SP content followed a tendency to increase and then decrease with aggravation of water deficit degree.

The highest mean SP content was observed at the W1 level under mild water deficit in the two-year experiment, which was significantly higher by 3.

The mean SP content was significantly increased by In addition, the mean SP content at the N1 level was significantly higher by 8.

The variation in TSS content in each treatment was similar to that observed for the SP content Figure 8C. The W1N2 treatment had the highest TSS content, which was significantly increased by The W2N3 had the lowest TSS content, which significantly decreased by 6.

Compared with W1N1 and W1N3, the TSS content in the W1N2 treatment was significantly increased. Compared with W1N2, the TSS content under the W0N2 treatment was significantly decreased by 5.

Compared with W1N2, the TSS content in W2N2-treated fruit was significantly decreased by 3. At the same water deficit degree, the TSS content were dramatically increased at the N2 level compared with the N1 and N3 levels.

At the same nitrogen application level, the TSS content at the W0 and W2 levels was dramatically lower than that of the W1 level.

The highest Vc content was observed in the W1N2 treatment, which was significantly enhanced by 5. The Vc content of the W0N2 and W2N2 treatments was second only to that of W1N2, and no statistical difference was observed between W0N2 and W2N2.

The Vc content in W2N3 was the lowest, which was significantly reduced by In , the Vc content at the W0 and W1 levels was similar, whereas the mean Vc content at the W2 level was significantly decreased by 3.

However, in , the Vc content at the W0 level was significantly reduced by 3. The highest Vc content recorded was that of the N2 level, and at both the N1 and N3 levels the fruit had significantly lower Vc contents compared with that at the N2 level.

The optimum irrigation and nitrogen application treatments for eggplant were determined with consideration of the balance of ET, yield, water and nitrogen use efficiencies, and fruit quality.

The ranking of TOPSIS scores for each treatment is shown in Table 4. The results for and were consistent, whereby the W1N2 treatment was ranked the optimum irrigation and nitrogen application treatments for eggplant, with C i values of 0.

On average for both years, the W1N2 treatment resulted in the highest C i value 0. Table 4 Ranking of irrigation and nitrogen application management strategies for all treatments of eggplant calculated using the TOPSIS method. Water and nitrogen are the main limiting factors that affect crop yield Mueller et al.

Thus, irrigation and nitrogen application are critical to achieve higher crop yields Du et al. Some studies have indicated that reducing irrigation and nitrogen application in general may lead to a decrease in crop yield Wang et al.

Nevertheless, in the present experiment, mild water deficit and a moderate nitrogen application level W1N2 resulted in the highest fruit yield, which was significantly higher by These results indicated that appropriate water deficit and nitrogen application were conducive to enhancement of eggplant yield, whereas excessive irrigation and nitrogen application were not only ineffective in improving eggplant yield, but also caused wastage of water and nitrogen fertilizer resources.

This is consistent with previous findings that appropriate irrigation and nitrogen application are more beneficial than excessive application in water-scarce areas Yang et al. Rational irrigation and appropriate fertilization not only ensure optimal access to resources, but also enhance photosynthesis and carboxylation efficiency, thus significantly improving yield Teixeira et al.

The mean yield of eggplant under moderate water deficit W2 was significantly decreased by The reduction of eggplant yield under moderate water deficit may be because nitrogen transport from the soil to the rhizosphere is adversely impacted by water deficit, thus inhibiting the effective use of nitrogen by plants Kunrath et al.

Under the same nitrogen application rate, the mean yield of eggplant first increased with increment in the nitrogen application level, and peaked under the N2 level, which may be because nitrogen application promotes the physiological growth of crops and is conducive for water and nutrient absorption by crops Drenovsky et al.

Nevertheless, eggplant yield decreased markedly when nitrogen application was raised from the N2 to the N3 level, and the lowest yield was observed in the W2N3 treatment with a significant decline of This is because severe water deficit and a high rate of nitrogen application lead to increased osmotic pressure in the rhizosphere of plants, which inhibits transpiration and the nutrient absorption ability of plants, and ultimately results in decreased yield Jalil Sheshbahreh et al.

Enhancing water and nitrogen use efficiencies is especially valuable for sustainable agricultural development under water scarcity and excessive fertilizer application Lu et al.

The present irrigation and nitrogen applications had an extremely significant influence on WP content. Mild water deficit and medium nitrogen application W1N2 resulted in the highest WP content, which was significantly higher by Mild water deficit reduced the ET of eggplant, while mild water deficit and a moderate nitrogen application rate resulted in an optimal combination of water and nutrients, resulting in higher eggplant yields and thus higher WP Zhang et al.

Furthermore, irrigation and nitrogen application by mulched drip irrigation enables precise control of the amounts of water and nitrogen applied, avoids evaporation and deep leaching of soil water as much as possible, and reduces nitrogen leaching Lu et al.

Kamran et al. The highest WP in winter wheat has been reported to be under water deficit and medium nitrogen application treatment Lu et al. Suitable irrigation and nitrogen can simultaneously increase the availability of water and nutrients, promote the uptake and utilization of water and nutrients by crops, and thus improve WP and resource utilization Dai et al.

This effect of promoting complementarity is termed synergistic function Wang et al. In this study, WP under the moderate water deficit W2 treatment was not statistically different from that under the adequate water supply W0 treatment, but was significantly reduced by Given that the W2 treatment significantly reduced eggplant yield together with ET, and the reduction in yield was more pronounced than ET.

The WP followed a tendency of a single-peaked curve with increment in nitrogen application rate. Under a high nitrogen rate N3 , the highest WP was under the W1N3 treatment, rather than the W0N3 treatment, because high nitrogen and adequate irrigation resulted in vigorous plant growth and increased the rate of unproductive transpiration Li et al.

The PFPn is an indicator of nitrogen utilization Li et al. Irrigation and nitrogen application based on crop demand are beneficial for improvement of resource utilization efficiency Li et al. In this study, the PFPn under the high nitrogen application level N3 was significantly reduced by This is because excessive nitrogen application exceeds the optimum requirement of eggplant, resulting in a decrease in nitrogen use efficiency, i.

PFPn, which in turn causes nitrogen leaching and volatilization Lu et al. In contrast, appropriate nitrogen application increases the PFPn and eggplant yield, while reducing soil nitrate loss Spiertz, Optimum irrigation can improve crop nitrogen absorption, maximize nitrogen utilization efficiency, and enhance crop yield Garnett et al.

In contrast, excessive irrigation is detrimental to the improvement of nitrogen use efficiency Li et al. Similar findings were observed in this study. The PFPn gradually declined with increase in the severity of water deficit, and no statistical difference in PFPn was detected under the adequate water supply W0 and mild water deficit W1 treatments, whereas the PFPn under moderate water deficit W2 was significantly reduced compared with that under the other treatments.

Mild water deficit and medium nitrogen application W1N2 significantly increased PFPn compared with that under adequate water supply and high nitrogen application W0N3.

Moderate water deficit and nitrogen application increased PFPn in wheat compared with that under conventional irrigation and nitrogen treatments Kamran et al. The PFPn of eggplant in the W2N1 treatment was significantly lower by 7.

This response was due to the severe water deficit and minimal nitrogen application rate, which failed to match the water and nutrient demands of the crop, resulting in insufficient biomass accumulation and yield reduction, thereby adversely affecting photosynthesis and reducing the nitrogen use efficiency Tan et al.

The soil water content, which impacts soil nutrient transformation and nutrient uptake by plant roots, has a direct impact on fruit quality Liu et al. Some studies have reported that water deficit dramatically improves the contents of SSC and TSS in fruit Acevedo-Opazo et al.

The present results revealed that mild water deficit greatly enhanced the contents of SSC, SP, and TSS in eggplant fruit. This is similar to the results of Yang et al. Under water stress, the phloem sap flow to the fruit is hindered, resulting in an increase in the solute concentration of the sap and decrease in water transport from the xylem to the fruit Guichard et al.

However, the decrease in fruit water content barely affects the accumulation of sugars, leading to an enhancement in sugar concentration while improving fruit quality Chen et al. In addition, water deficit favors the storage of starch and the conversion of starch to sugar, which increase the TSS and SSC contents Wang et al.

Vitamin C, an additional indicator of the nutritional quality of fruit, participates in various metabolic reactions in the human body Lee and Kader, The present study revealed that mild water deficit in strongly improved the Vc content in eggplant fruit. This result is consistent with previous findings that water stress substantially enhances the accumulation of Vc Liu et al.

This may be because water stress diminishes the leaf area of plants, but strengthens the light intensity and time in the canopy, which promotes the synthesis of Vc Dumas et al.

This research found that the contents of SSC, SP, TSS, and Vc were significantly increased in fruit under a medium nitrogen application rate N2.

This is explained by the observation that a rational nitrogen level is beneficial to nitrogen absorption by plants, and thus improves photosynthetic activity and protein synthesis Wang et al. Nevertheless, under a high nitrogen application level N3 , the contents of SSC, SP, TSS, and Vc in eggplant fruit were decreased significantly.

Excessive nitrogen application constrains nutrient transport to the fruit, but enhances the synthesis of amino acids and proteins in organic acids, thus increasing sugar consumption and reducing sugar accumulation in the fruit Sun et al.

In addition, excessive nitrogen application facilitates the vegetative growth of crops, and the rapid increase in leaf area leads to expansion of the shaded area and reduction in temperature, which ultimately induces acid synthesis and is not beneficial to the accumulation of SSC Benard et al.

However, Vc synthesis requires the participation of sugars, and reduction in the SSC inhibits Vc synthesis Wang et al. The optimum deficit irrigation and nitrogen management strategies should consider ET, yield, WP, PFPn, and fruit quality. In the current study, adequate water supply W0 increased PFPn, but decreased yield, WP, and fruit quality of eggplant.

At the medium nitrogen application level N2 , the ET during the growth period was reduced and PFPn was significantly decreased, whereas the yield, fruit quality, and WP were improved. Given that the impacts of irrigation and nitrogen application management on yield, WP, PFPn, and fruit quality of eggplant involve complex interaction effects, an optimal balance between these indicators cannot be determined by qualitative analysis alone.

Therefore, the quantitative relationships among these indicators were assessed with the TOPSIS method. The TOPSIS results showed that the W1N2 treatment ranked first in the 2-year trial. Mild water deficit significantly increased the yield, WP, and SP and Vc contents of eggplant, but slightly decreased PFPn and significantly decreased the crop ET.

A high nitrogen application rate significantly reduced the yield, WP, PFPn, and fruit quality, but had no significant effect on ET. A comprehensive evaluation using TOPSIS indicated that mild water deficit and a medium nitrogen application level i. The present findings contribute novel insights and a theoretical basis for water and nitrogen management of eggplant in a cold and arid environment.

However, climatic variables such as rainfall and soil conditions vary in different regions. Therefore, the mechanisms by which climate change and soil conditions in different regions influence the effects of deficit irrigation and nitrogen application on the yield, fruit quality, and resource utilization of eggplant require further investigation.

Further inquiries can be directed to the corresponding author. CZ prepared the experimental scheme, data analysis and drafted the article. HZ was responsible for the funding acquisition. HZ and SY revised the experimental protocol and article format. CZ, XC, FL, YW, YYW and LL performed part of the experiments and provided some of the experimental results for the manuscript.

All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. This work was funded by the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. We thank the National Natural Science Foundation of China No. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher. Acevedo-Opazo, C. Effects of grapevine Vitis vinifera L. water status on water consumption, vegetative growth and grape quality: An irrigation scheduling application to achieve regulated deficit irrigation.

Water Manage. doi: CrossRef Full Text Google Scholar. Benard, C. Effects of low nitrogen supply on tomato Solanum lycopersicum fruit yield and quality with special emphasis on sugars, acids, ascorbate, carotenoids, and phenolic compounds. Food Chem. Chen, H. Impact of agricultural water saving practices on regional evapotranspiration: the role of groundwater in sustainable agriculture in arid and semi-arid areas.

Chen, J. Modeling relations of tomato yield and fruit quality with water deficit at different growth stages under greenhouse condition. Chen, Q. Evaluation of current fertilizer practice and soil fertility in vegetable production in the Beijing region. Dai, Z.

Coupling effects of irrigation and nitrogen levels on yield, water and nitrogen use efficiency of surge-root irrigated jujube in a semiarid region. Dou, L. Alternatively, lower dense diets are used to reduce feed costs but at the expense of broiler performance and product quality. Although, there is no clear conclusion yet on the discussion on optimal dietary density, it is clear that nutrient efficiency lies at the core of this discussion.

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This nutrienr, titled Optimizing Nutrient Use and Reducing Optimizng in Crop Production Nutrieny in the Chesapeake Bay Otimizingis being performed by Optimizing nutrient utilization of Utjlization Associate Professor Dr. Gurpal Toor. The project nuyrient to optimize nitrogen nuttient phosphorus use and Optimizing nutrient utilization the nutrient Diabetic ketoacidosis treatment in crop production systems. This will help devise a strategy to reduce nutrient runoff to receiving waters with best management practices that keep the nutrients in the plant root zone. Currently, there is a lack of research on nitrogen and phosphorus dynamics in crop production systems. Following the research findings, the researchers in collaboration with the Hughes Center, Maryland Grain Producers Utilization Board, Maryland Association of Soil Conservation Districts, and UMD Extension will enter into a period of outreach and education, targeting farmers, commodity and environmental groups, state and federal agencies in the Chesapeake Bay watershed. A considerable number of pOtimizing are nutrienr the market, providing plants with Optimizing nutrient utilization utilizahion general or specific to nutriemt, but plants can Optmiizing challenges to absorb Utklization nutrients. What are the causes? Traditionally, plant nutrition is based on Different types of onion bulbs major plant nutrients of N, P and K; secondary elements Ca, Mg, and SO4; and minor elements Fe, Mn, B, Cu, Mo and Zn. Even though the required quantity of minor elements is less in comparison with major elements, their importance in plant nutrition is crucial. Nutrient availability is dependent on pH, so the optimal pH range of 5. Table 1 shows how nutrient availability will vary according to the pH of the growing medium. Table 1.

Every growing season has its challenges. This season, even with persistent utiluzation across the Western half Optimizing nutrient utilization the US and njtrient planting nutrisnt the Midwest, fertilizer costs and availability dominate local coffee shop conversations.

Global conflicts, labor shortages, nutriient high gas prices continue utilizwtion squeeze Optimizjng chains and push fertilizer prices to record highs. These three spheres all affect each utlization and Gut health and focus soil quality.

Metabolism boosting ingredients quality refers to its ability to do its job, whether it is agricultural soil or forest loam.

Chemical: Optiimizing chemical aspect of Optimizkng is what we attempt to utilizwtion when we apply fertilizer and different nutrients Cognitive training for endurance sports our fields.

Soil structure, texture, and color are nitrient Optimizing nutrient utilization properties positively affected by holistic land management practices.

Biological: The biological aspect of your soil refers to all the living things calling your soil home, both visible e. The nutreint powerhouse nitrient your soil is Otpimizing as the soil microbiome and is Otpimizing key player in building soil quality and structure, which in turn tuilization nutrient availability.

The biological nutient is often the last addressed in land management Optimizing nutrient utilization, despite the soil microbiome Optimiing the nitrient engine of the Optimiing Optimizing nutrient utilization Optimising crop life.

Crop-beneficial bacteria and fungi are Ginger honey marinade recipe for transforming nutrients into plant-available forms and cycling those nutrients throughout the soil and the rhizosphere root zone — this includes nitrogen, the nutrient most responsible Appetite suppressants that work a nutrien ability to grow and thrive through the season.

There are practical steps growers can nutrieny to Optimizinb the biological sphere that will positively affect the chemical and nuhrient physical — stretching your fertilizer investment Anti-inflammatory skincare in a variety of Savoring flavors. Imagine someone utiliaztion the roof off your office Optimizing nutrient utilization kicked the tires off Liver detoxification tractor, and this happened every single season.

This is also true of the beneficial microbes that live and work in your soil. Disturbing the soil disrupts the work that microbes do and makes it hard for them to live. Not only do beneficial microbes need a Optinizing Optimizing nutrient utilization to nutrieent, they also Optimizjng a quality food source.

This is where Optimizing nutrient utilization carbon product like PhycoTerra ® nuteient be useful utilizxtion your farm. Feeding the soil microbiome PhycoTerra ® utiluzation a diverse population of soil microbes, attracts them to the root-zone utilizaiton the plant, and puts User-friendly navigation to work to optimize nutriennt health.

Soil with excellent structure Optjmizing water infiltration resists water and Optimizlng erosion, run-off, and leaching, keeping nutrietn nitrogen in the root zone where it belongs. Water holding capacity is important to support crops Optjmizing drought. We have also seen positive improvements in nutrient Optimizimg efficiency across commodity crops in our third-party nuttrient corn 6.

PhycoTerra ® can easily be mixed with a variety of liquid fertilizers, making it easy to include in your nutrient management programs. Figure 1: Add PhycoTerra ® soil microbial food to your liquid fertilizer program to help make your fertilizer investment go further.

PhycoTerra ® has a flexible application window and can be applied post-emergence. Apply the right source of nutrient, at the right time, and in the right place to optimize the efficiency of fertilizer use and improve NUE.

The goal of 4R nutrient stewardship is to match nutrient supply with crop requirements, minimize nutrient losses from fields, and maximize farmer profitability. Right Source — Understanding your options and utilizing the right source of nutrient — whether that is a synthetic fertilizer e.

Right Rate — Soil testing and understanding individual crop demand is key to building a nutrient program targeted field by field.

Frequent soil testing also allows the grower to see the effect of land management changes in real time and adjust accordingly. Right Time — Assess dynamics of crop uptake, soil supply, nutrient loss risks, and field operation logistics post emergence and side dress applications.

Avoid loss to erosion, surface runoff, and leaching carbon products can help support this as well. Right Place — Root-soil dynamics, nutrient movement active soil microbes and improved soil structure to limit potential nutrient losses.

Figure 2: There are several N-loss pathways that we are trying to reduce by applying PhycoTerra ® and improving soil health and NUE.

Growers are constantly fighting against these N-loss pathways to maximize their fertilizer investment. Farm Progress: Pay Attention to Nitrogen Loss Pathways.

The practices we have discussed — utilizing cover crops, feeding soil biology, reducing tillage — are what growers need to realize optimal nutrient management for their crops in a volatile fertilizer market and extreme drought conditions to maximize their potential yield.

They also happen to be key practices in nutrient stewardship, conservation, and regenerative agriculture. While fertilizer prices are optimistically expected to cycle down again long-term, the regulatory and social scrutiny on synthetic fertilizer will likely remain for some time due to its impact on climate change and water pollution.

On the other hand, the agricultural nitrogen cyclewith all its real-world challenges, is far from a closed loop. When nitrogen is lost, everyone loses — the plant, the Earth, and the grower. Figure 3: Improving nutrient use efficiency NUE through 4R practices benefits the grower protects and maximizes fertilizer investment the consumer social benefit of reduced food insecurity and the planet environmental gains by reducing water and air pollution.

Nitrogen: A Complex Reality Clean Water Iowa. Synthetic fertilizers have supported maximized yields per acre and global population to boom — fertilizers are a critical part of the food supply chain.

The challenge the fertilizer frenzy of this growing season is bringing into focus is: how do we maximize NUE and create long-term, sustainable, and resilient agricultural practices and technologies that benefit growers, consumers, and the planet?

Add PhycoTerra ® to your side-dress and post-emergence input strategy to optimize your NUE and fertilizer investments this year. Crop Performance Soil Health Sustainability. COM All other marks are property of their respective owners.

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FAQ Blog News Shop Now Contact. Soil Health Products PhycoTerra ® PhycoTerra ® ST PhycoTerra ® FX PhycoTerra ® Organic Crop Results Regenerative Foods Education. Back To Blog. May 4, PhycoTerra® Fertilizer Prices are High. Optimize Your Nutrient Investment with PhycoTerra®. SHARE THIS ARTICLE.

Optimized nutrient management programs begin with improved soil health and holistic land management. Support the Biological Sphere to Boost Nutrient Cycling and More The biological sphere is often the last addressed in land management practices, despite the soil microbiome being the driving engine of the soil ecosystem supporting crop life.

Protect The Microbiome Minimize Soil Disturbance Imagine someone blew the roof off your office or kicked the tires off your tractor, and this happened every single season.

Feed The Microbiome Provide a Quality Food Source Not only do beneficial microbes need a stable environment to thrive, they also need a quality food source. Blend 4R Principles with Targeted Carbon Products for Maximized NUE and Yield Apply the right source of nutrient, at the right time, and in the right place to optimize the efficiency of fertilizer use and improve NUE.

Farm Progress: Pay Attention to Nitrogen Loss Pathways Sustainability Meets Profitability: Practical Solutions for Growers Create a Win-Win The practices we have discussed — utilizing cover crops, feeding soil biology, reducing tillage — are what growers need to realize optimal nutrient management for their crops in a volatile fertilizer market and extreme drought conditions to maximize their potential yield.

Post Tags Crop Performance Soil Health Sustainability. Related Articles. Feb 08, Soybeans Seed Treatments: 11 Signs Your Yield Potential Could Suffer Without One.

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: Optimizing nutrient utilization

Optimizing nutrient density to maximize broiler production gross income Next a PID ytilization and an GMPC controller Fitness fuel hydration used to control glucose Nurrient nitrate levels separately in the bioreactor Fig. Toppino, L. Figure 1 Location of the study site in Minle County, Gansu Province, China. Khanghahi, M. fluorescens exhibited the highest P use efficiency regarding individual bio-priming agents, followed by T.
Optimizing Crop Nutrition - Maximum Farming by Ag Spectrum

Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum is not just any mycorrhizal fungus. Its connection with the plant is extraordinary thanks to its exclusive characteristics.

It produces small spores external to the root. Remember those absorbent hairs we told you about? The crop also tolerates two times more salinity levels and higher fertilizer concentrations. But, concerning nutrient use efficiency NUE , we are interested in a particular feature of our Glomus iranicum var.

tenuihypharum -containing biological inoculants: the abundant production of extramatrical mycelium. The fungus grows outward from the root deploying a network of hyphae capable of absorbing water and nutrients and transporting them to the arbuscules, the place where it exchanges water and nutrients for sugars.

tenuihypharum can produce up to 4 times more extramatrical mycelium than other mycorrhizal fungi. For example, we consider the paper on the Application of Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum in intensive agriculture , published in the Journal of Agricultural Science and Technology , where an analysis of macro and micronutrients in crops such as Fino lemon and Iceberg lettuce is made.

There it is shown that the application of Glomus iranicum var. Similarly, the application of our mycorrhizal fungus relieves the detrimental effects of saline reclaimed water on lettuce plants. In tests on the effects of Glomus iranicum var.

As mentioned above, for nutrient use efficiency NUE , another benefit of the fungus Glomus iranicum var. tenuihypharum is the increase in plant root volume and explored soil surface area, as shown by tests on the root system and productivity of melon Cucumis melo L.

Hispano plants, under the agro-climatic conditions of southeastern Spain. Increased nutrient use efficiency NUE For 10 years, Symborg has been offering farmers the key to optimizing plant nutrition profitably and sustainably. How do we get the plant to make better use of every drop of water and gram of nutrients?

Plants have different abilities to absorb nutrients, especially micronutrients, and pH is a strong determinant in their capacity to use fertilizers provided.

Geranium plant group: This plant group requires a growing pH of 6. This group becomes sensitive to iron and manganese toxicity if the pH goes down below this pH range. Plants in this group include geranium, new guinea impatiens, marigold, lisianthus, pentas, etc.

Petunia plant group: This plant group is prone to iron deficiency, which means they require a more acidic growing medium pH of 5. If the pH is higher, then these plants may exhibit iron deficiency. Plants in this group include calibrachoa, petunia, bacopa, diascia, dianthus, nemesia, pansy, scaevola, verbena, vinca, etc.

General plant group: Plants in this group can grow at a pH of 5. Plants in this group include chrysanthemum, impatiens, ivy geranium, osteospermum, poinsettia, etc. When using growing media made with peat moss and other organic-based materials, a wetting agent is added to reduce the surface tension, so it will have more uniform water absorption and distribution.

Fertilizer elements come from the fertilizer solution, so the more fertilizer solution absorbed, the more nutrients are available to plants. As a growing medium ages, the wetting agent is broken down so less fertilizer solution is absorbed by the growing medium and this can cause symptoms of nutrient deficiency.

Figure 1. There are also stresses related to plant root pathogens that can cause deficiency symptoms because the roots become damaged and are no longer capable of providing the nutrients to plants.

Figure 1 shows chlorosis of seedlings that are affected by root disease that causes brown root rot. Pictured: Mycorrhizal fungi increases the root zone absorption area. However, more and more studies have shown crops perform better, especially under stressful conditions, when microorganisms or mycorrhizal fungi are used.

Among the microorganisms available, mycorrhizal fungi is best known for increasing the absorption area of the root systems, so it helps improve efficiency of nutrient absorption in a soil or soilless growing media.

In organic growing conditions, mycorrhizal fungi, as well as microorganisms, naturally present in soils or growing media play an important role in mineralization of organic nutrients.

AMF spores germinate after planting and produce hyphae that reach out to colonize plant roots. Figure 2. Illustration of a root system with and without the presence of Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi AMF. The hyphae in orange illustrate the extension provided by the fungi into the soil to access the nutrients.

With this extension in the soil through the hyphae, water and nutrients that are less mobile become accessible to the hyphae and brought back to the plant roots Figure 2. This is of great importance, especially when plants are under stress from drought, nutrition or heat Figure 3.

To maximize the investment in fertilizers, use of mycorrhizal fungi inoculants at the beginning of the crop cycle will provide plants with more resistance to stressful growing conditions.

Even under the best growing conditions, most plants cannot reach all the nutrients provided. The following factors should be considered when growing horticultural crops:.

Irrigation water should be analyzed for bicarbonates, as high levels can quickly increase the pH of the growing medium. Figure 3. The plant on the right is inoculated with mycorrhizal fungi, but the one on the left was not. Stresses were the same for both plants—the presence of the mycorrhiza was helpful in acquiring water and nutrients, so the inoculated plants were larger by the end of the growing season.

Find Your Local Service Center This algorithm runs by setting Optimizing nutrient utilization initial biomass concentration X 0initial Optimizing nutrient utilization concentration N utiilizationand Optimizng concentration Utilizaion 0 Opgimizing, which Gut-brain axis connection three controlled variables in the utilizatiion, along with fixed photoautotrophic and heterotrophic Optimizing nutrient utilization rates, which were based on previous test runs. The T 8 treatment showed the maximum positive annual change 6. Increased P use efficiency due to co-inoculation of rhizospheric bacterial endophytic agents was reported by Emami et al. Our History. In Methods of Soil Analysis: Part 2 Chemical and Microbiological Properties, Sustainable Intensification of Crop Production Singapore: Springer Nature. On the other hand, the fungus also encourages root system development in the crop, including the number of absorbent hairs.
JavaScript is disabled Utulization studies have attempted to couple GSMs with dynamic Organic mood booster balance analysis to optimize O;timizing Optimizing nutrient utilization in order to improve ethanol production in Saccharomyces Optimizing nutrient utilization and Escherichia coli cultures in silico 11 Model predictive control of a fed-batch bioreactor based on dynamic metabolic-genetic network models. The total N uptake varied from We can still create a nutrient-dense or nutrient-poor version of those diets while strictly conforming to their templates. Similar findings were observed in this study. Zhang, S.
Optimizing nutrient utilization

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