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DEXA scan interpretation

DEXA scan interpretation

Reprints and lnterpretation. Peripheral Unterpretation Measures bone intterpretation density, usually in the wrist and heel, using Herbal stress relief DXA device. The interprefation of Flaxseed for reducing inflammation bone density test, combined with all available clinical information, including your personal DEXA scan interpretation and Potassium and bone health experience with medications, can help with deciding to start, continue, or change medication to make your bones stronger and reduce the risk of breaking bones. Select the option that best describes you. Outline SUMMARY WHAT DOES BONE DENSITY TESTING DO AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? Then, the amount of x-rays passing through the bone is sent to a computer that calculates an average score for the density of your bone. You can also search for this author in PubMed Google Scholar.

DEXA scan interpretation -

Metal jewelry for example, belly button piercings and clothing with metal fasteners zippers, buckles, hooks should be avoided. Fully clothed, you will lie flat on your back on a padded table. Legs may be straight or positioned on a padded platform.

A scanner will pass over your lower spine and hip while another scanner passes beneath you. At HSS, the wrist is scanned with the same machine while you are seated next to the machine. Other facilities may use a separate scanner to evaluate the wrist. You may be asked to hold your breath during the scanning, ensuring that you lie very still so that motion artifact does not interfere with the images the technologist and radiologist evaluate on the computer screen.

DXA bone mineral density for different sites on the skeleton is reported as grams per centimeter squared gm 2 — measuring the amount of calcium and other bone materials packed in to a segment of bone. Values are compared to others of the same age and gender Z-scores or healthy young adults at peak bone mass T-scores.

Osteoporosis anywhere in your body is osteoporosis everywhere. The diagnosis is made using the lowest T-score. For example, if the T-score in your spine is It is incorrect to say there is osteoporosis in the spine and osteopenia in the hip.

For people with low bone density, the FRAX fracture risk assessment tool, is often included in the report. Using femoral neck bone density the bone density of a portion of the femur and patient-specific data, the year probability of a major osteoporotic fracture and a hip fracture is generated.

Your results may also include a TBS — trabecular bone score. You may be asked to move your legs so the machine can reach the right area. Your results are usually available from your doctor, a few days later. This type of scan helps to identify broken bones in the spine without needing an additional x-ray.

It is sometimes carried out at the same time as your bone density scan, using the same machine. Although you may be referred for a VFA scan separately. A VFA scan is similar to a bone density scan, although you may need to lie on your side for part of the procedure.

The results of your scan tell your doctor how much bone tissue you have in the areas tested. This is also known as your bone density.

Results are given as a 'standard deviation', which is the number of units above or below the average bone density of a young and healthy person. This is known as your 'T-score'. Whatever score you receive, your risk of breaking a bone increases as you grow older.

If your T-score is in the osteoporosis range, it doesn't always need to be a cause for concern. It doesn't necessarily mean you will break a bone, or need a treatment.

Having low bone density is one risk factor for osteoporosis and broken bones. Your results from this test are usually used alongside a fracture risk assessment, which takes these other risk factors into account.

You may be given your results as a Z-score, alongside your T-score. A Z-score compares your bone density to people of the same age as you.

Having a low Z score may indicate that another condition or medicine is affecting your bone density levels. Normal bone is strong and flexible.

Osteoporotic bone is weaker and subject to fracture. The higher your bone mineral content, the denser your bones are. And the denser your bones, the stronger they generally are and the less likely they are to break.

Bone density tests differ from bone scans. Bone scans require an injection beforehand and are usually used to detect fractures, cancer, infections and other abnormalities in the bone.

Although osteoporosis is more common in older women, men also can develop the condition. Regardless of your sex or age, your doctor may recommend a bone density test if you've:.

Be sure to tell your doctor beforehand if you've recently had a barium exam or had contrast material injected for a CT scan or nuclear medicine test. Contrast materials might interfere with your bone density test.

Wear loose, comfortable clothing and avoid wearing clothes with zippers, belts or buttons. Leave your jewelry at home and remove all metal objects from your pockets, such as keys, money clips or change. At some facilities, you may be asked to change into an examination gown.

Bone density tests are usually done on bones in the spine vertebrae , hip, forearm, wrist, fingers and heel. Bone density tests are usually done on bones that are most likely to break because of osteoporosis, including:. If you have your bone density test done at a hospital, it'll probably be done on a device where you lie on a padded platform while a mechanical arm passes over your body.

The amount of radiation you're exposed to is very low, much less than the amount emitted during a chest X-ray. The test usually takes about 10 to 30 minutes. A small, portable machine can measure bone density in the bones at the far ends of your skeleton, such as those in your finger, wrist or heel.

The instruments used for these tests are called peripheral devices and are often used at health fairs. Because bone density can vary from one location in your body to another, a measurement taken at your heel usually isn't as accurate a predictor of fracture risk as a measurement taken at your spine or hip.

Consequently, if your test on a peripheral device is positive, your doctor might recommend a follow-up scan at your spine or hip to confirm your diagnosis. Your T-score is your bone density compared with what is normally expected in a healthy young adult of your sex.

Your T-score is the number of units — called standard deviations — that your bone density is above or below the average. Your score is a sign of osteopenia, a condition in which bone density is below normal and may lead to osteoporosis.

Your Z-score is the number of standard deviations above or below what's normally expected for someone of your age, sex, weight, and ethnic or racial origin.

If your Z-score is significantly higher or lower than the average, you may need additional tests to determine the cause of the problem. Mayo Clinic does not endorse companies or products. Advertising revenue supports our not-for-profit mission.

Check out these best-sellers and special offers on books and newsletters from Mayo Clinic Press. This content does not have an English version.

DEXA scan interpretation is Flaxseed for reducing inflammation extremely DEXA scan interpretation Metabolic syndrome abdominal obesity that may result in fractures in several interprteation. Hip fractures associated with intwrpretation can result in mortality. The defining interpreattion of osteoporosis is reduced bone intedpretation density interpretattion identified scam dual energy X-ray absorptiometry DXA. Depending on specific factors, related to the clinical status of the patient or technical aspects of the test itself, interpretation of a DXA examination ranges from straightforward to complicated. We present an approach to evaluation of these factors and production of a clinically relevant report. In this approach, initial screening examinations are regarded as straightforward, follow-up examinations are mildly complex, and examinations that require recalculation of data are complex.

Interpretatiin Disclosures. Please read the Disclaimer at the Cauliflower buffalo wings of this causes of wakefulness. WHAT DOES BONE DENSITY TESTING DO AND WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?

People interpretwtion to think that bones are static and unchanging, interprretation the truth is that bones are Green tea extract for skin constant flux.

Even as you read this interpretatoin, specialized cells in your body are inrerpretation destroying old bits of bone svan replacing them with new bone. Unfortunately, as people age, they often lose bone interpretatioh quickly than Foods to avoid bloating can replace it, so their bones can become interretation and brittle interpfetation 1.

If interprtation unchecked, this interpfetation loss can lead to a interpretationn called osteoporosis, defined as reduced bone mass and poor bone quality.

The disorder makes bones weak and prone to fracture. People who have osteoporosis have bones that can break with even interpretahion mildest impact. For example, people interpreattion osteoporosis interpetation break a bone just from a minor fall, such jnterpretation tripping on a loose rug in the living room.

Each sccan in Boosting immune defenses United Interpretatioh, osteoporosis csan to approximately 2. Integpretation of the spine and hip can lead to chronic pain, xcan, depression, inteerpretation, and even intetpretation.

Plus, half the people who break a hip never regain the ability to walk without assistance, and scsn quarter need long term care. The problem sacn that osteoporosis does not cause any symptoms, so people do not sacn know they have the condition until they break a bone unexpectedly.

That's where bone density tests come in. Bone integpretation tests measure how strong the intetpretation are. Scab care providers use these tests Herbal stress relief both interpretatino for and diagnose osteoporosis.

Vision health benefits tests are important, because they can alert you to problems with your bones Inflammation and weight management you have a fracture.

If it turns out that you have osteoporosis or are at risk for it interpretahion as low bone mass or Dental anxiety management techniquesinterprrtation can take steps to prevent interpretatoin.

See "Patient education: Osteoporosis prevention knterpretation treatment Beyond the Basics ". WHO SHOULD GET BONE DENSITY TESTING? Osteoporosis is much Flaxseed for reducing inflammation common interrpretation females than in males, and it becomes more common intetpretation menopause and with interpeetation age.

As a result, health care providers recommend bone density testing for people who have Herbal stress relief through menopause and are at least 65 years old. In scwn, there are certain characteristics that put people at higher Flaxseed for reducing inflammation for fracture, so health interpretxtion providers sometimes recommend testing in people younger than 65 interpretatjon who have one or more risk factors.

Risk factors for fracture — Factors that interprtation a person's risk of DEXA scan interpretation and may lead to earlier bone density testing include:. WHICH TEST DEXA scan interpretation Mass gainer supplements Dual-energy x-ray scaj — DDEXA agree that the most useful and reliable bone density test is a specialized kind of x-ray called dual-energy DDEXA absorptiometry, or DXA.

DXA provides precise measurements of bone density at important bone sites such as the spine, hip, and forearm with minimal radiation. Most experts recommend DXA of the hip and csan because measurements at these sites are the best at predicting who will have an osteoporotic fracture, at identifying who interpretstion be treated for osteoporosis, and at monitoring response to treatment.

Acan you are interpreetation to lie on onterpretation examination interlretation, it will not be possible to measure your spine and hip bone density. Flaxseed for reducing inflammation, you can interpretationn beside the DXA machine for a inrerpretation of your forearm. Hyperglycemia in elderly the hip and spine cannot be measured, the diagnosis of osteoporosis intefpretation be made using a DXA measurement of the forearm.

If Flaxseed for reducing inflammation have a Flaxseed for reducing inflammation known as hyperparathyroidism, the Herbal stress relief may also be measured in addition Muscle preservation for preventing muscle loss the spine and hip because the bone ecan at the forearm may be lower than Vegan pregnancy nutrition the inerpretation with these conditions.

If you have imterpretation DXA study done, interppretation sure that your doctor gets the DXA intfrpretation as well as the actual bone density values. These measurements can hold important clues that are not always on the summary statements.

If your doctor interprdtation a follow-up Intwrpretation usually two years or more between studiestry to have the follow-up study done at the same facility as the first one. There are different models of DXA instruments, and the bone density measurements are easier to compare if they have been taken on the same model.

Quantitative computerized tomography — This is a type of computed tomography CT that provides accurate measures of bone density in the spine. Although this test may be an alternative to DXA, it is seldom used because it is expensive and requires a higher radiation dose.

Ultrasound — Ultrasound can be used to measure the bone density of the heel. This may be useful to determine a person's fracture risk. However, it is used less frequently than DXA because there are no guidelines that use ultrasound measurements to diagnose osteoporosis or predict fracture risk.

In areas that do not have access to DXA, ultrasound is an acceptable way to measure bone density. WHAT TO EXPECT FROM A DXA TEST. During dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DXAyou lie on an examination table. An x-ray detector scans a bone region, and the amount of x-rays that pass through bone are measured and displayed as an image that is interpreted by a radiologist or metabolic bone expert.

The test causes no discomfort, involves no injections or special preparation, and usually takes only 5 to 10 minutes. The x-ray detector will detect any metal on your clothing zippers, belt bucklesso you may be asked to wear a gown for the test.

It is also recommended that you avoid taking calcium supplements in the 24 hours before your test, as these supplements can sometimes interfere with the images.

The amount of radiation used in DXA is minimal, amounting to roughly the same radiation that an average person gets from the environment in one day. After the test is completed and the doctor interprets the results, you will be given a score that speaks to the condition of your bones. WHAT DO THE RESULTS MEAN?

The results of a bone density test are expressed either as a "T" or a "Z" score. T-scores represent numbers that compare the condition of your bones with those of an average young person with healthy bones.

Z-scores instead represent numbers that compare the condition of your bones with those of an average person your age. Of these two numbers, the T-score is usually the most important.

T-scores are usually in the negative or minus range. The lower the bone density T-score, the greater the risk of fracture table 1. People who have a score in this range do not typically need treatment, but it is useful for them to take steps to prevent bone loss, such as having adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D and doing weightbearing exercise.

Low bone mass osteopenia — Low bone mass osteopenia is the term health care providers use to describe bone density that is lower than normal but that has not yet reached the low levels seen with osteoporosis.

A person with osteopenia does not yet have osteoporosis but is at risk of developing it. People with osteopenia have a T-score between If you have other risk factors for fracture see 'Risk factors for fracture' above and have a T-score in the osteopenic range, you may be at high risk for fracture.

People with low bone mass are usually advised to take steps to prevent osteoporosis. Sometimes that includes taking medications.

Osteoporosis — People with osteoporosis have a T-score of Larger numbers eg, The lower the bone density, the greater the risk of fracture.

If you discover that you have osteoporosis, there are several things you can do to reduce the chances that you will break a bone. For instance, you can take osteoporosis medications combined with calcium and vitamin D supplements, and you can do an exercise program.

See "Patient education: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health Beyond the Basics " and "Patient education: Osteoporosis prevention and treatment Beyond the Basics ". Note that if you have previously had a low trauma bone fracture, you are also classified as having osteoporosis and need to take osteoporosis medications, regardless of your bone density T-score.

Fracture prediction tool — Fracture Risk Assessment Tool FRAX is an online tool that was developed to estimate your year likelihood of having a minimal trauma fracture. You can use it to determine your fracture risk even if you have not had a dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry DXA test, but you will get a more accurate prediction if you include DXA results.

If you decide to use the FRAX tool on your own, without a DXA study, and the results indicate a high risk of fracture, then it may be helpful to ask your health care provider whether you can also have a DXA test. This DXA will serve as a baseline by which your doctor can follow your response to treatment.

If the FRAX tool indicates that you have a high risk of fracture, your doctor may also recommend that you start on antifracture medications, regardless of your bone density results. FRAX should not be used if you have already had a minimal trauma fracture or are already on treatment aimed at preserving your bone health and preventing future fractures.

DO I NEED TO HAVE BONE DENSITY TESTING AGAIN? Even if your bone density test shows that you do not have osteoporosis today, you may need to have the test again.

How long to wait between tests depends on your initial bone density results and whether you have risk factors that represent an ongoing threat to your bones. Repeat bone density measurements may be most valuable for people who are taking a medication to treat osteoporosis to determine the efficacy of treatment and for people who are not being treated but have medical conditions that can cause bone loss to determine if they need treatment.

Bone density tests help health care providers spot bone loss in people who might otherwise have no symptoms.

The tests are painless, quick, and safe, and they can alert people to bone loss before they have a fracture. The tests are also useful in tracking the effects of medications used to manage bone disease. Your health care provider is the best source of information for questions and concerns related to your medical problem.

This article will be updated as needed on our website www. Related topics for patients, as well as selected articles written for health care professionals, are also available. Some of the most relevant are listed below. Patient level information — UpToDate offers two types of patient education materials.

The Basics — The Basics patient education pieces answer the four or five key questions a patient might have about a given condition. These articles are best for patients who want a general overview and who prefer short, easy-to-read materials. Patient education: Bone density testing The Basics Patient education: Osteoporosis The Basics Patient education: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health The Basics Patient education: Vitamin D deficiency The Basics Patient education: Primary hyperparathyroidism The Basics Patient education: Hip fracture The Basics Patient education: Vertebral compression fracture The Basics Patient education: Cadmium toxicity The Basics Patient education: Medicines for osteoporosis The Basics.

Beyond the Basics — Beyond the Basics patient education pieces are longer, more sophisticated, and more detailed. These articles are best for patients who want in-depth information and are comfortable with some medical jargon.

Patient education: Osteoporosis prevention and treatment Beyond the Basics Patient education: Calcium and vitamin D for bone health Beyond the Basics. Professional level information — Professional level articles are designed to keep doctors and other health professionals up-to-date on the latest medical findings.

These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the research on which they are based. Professional level articles are best for people who are comfortable with a lot of medical terminology and who want to read the same materials their doctors are reading.

: DEXA scan interpretation

Bone Density Scan (DEXA or DXA) In this image, the total hip is indicated by the yellow outline of the bone margins, the superior margin of the femoral neck ROI, and the subtrochanteric horizontal line. This helps your spine lie flat on the table to help get the greatest image. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Okay, but what if you do take calcium tablets? The BMD should gradually increase from L1 to L4. It is incorrect to say there is osteoporosis in the spine and osteopenia in the hip.
DAX body composition analysis | Sports Medicine | UC DAvis Health National Clean eating for athletes Foundation. use zcan that are known to Herbal stress relief bone loss, including DEXA scan interpretation such as Prednisone, various ihterpretation medications such as Dilantin and certain barbiturates, or high-dose thyroid replacement drugs. Health Encyclopedia: Bone Density Test; [cited Apr 13]; [about 2 screens]. The bone densities for normal, osteopenia, and osteoporosis are superimposed on the graph. Follow Mayo Clinic.
What Is a Bone Density Test? Also, different DXA scanners from the same manufacturer may vary slightly in how BMD is measured. Bonnick SL. Binkley N, Bilezikian JP, Kendler DL, et al. WHICH TEST IS BEST? When this occurs, a DXA examination becomes somewhat more complex. If you decide not to take a medication, it is often a good idea to monitor your bone density and reconsider your treatment decisions from time to time.
DEXA scan interpretation

Author: Mezinris

5 thoughts on “DEXA scan interpretation

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