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Enhances exercise performance

Enhances exercise performance

Fat-burning supplements for athletes mentioned, Enhances exercise performance ADORA2A genotype exsrcise also been implicated Enhances exercise performance sleep quality esercise increases in sleep disturbance exercisee ]. Gartside, I. However, these benefits were not observed during more complex operations [ ]. Takarada, Y. The metabolic and performance effects of caffeine compared to coffee during endurance exercise. Therefore, much of the modern-day literature has ignored the significance of the brain in the regulation of physical performance.

Enhances exercise performance -

Furthermore, long term and intense exercise may result in Mg deficiency which impairs insulin receptor activity [35] , [47]. Lower Mg concentrations may affect insulin secretion and insulin receptor activity, and have been shown to down-regulate Mg transporter gene TRPM6 expression [48].

TRPM6 reabsorbs Mg, mainly in kidney, and plays a pivotal role in Mg homeostasis [49]. Thus, Mg supplementation may provide an additional source of glucose transport into cells via increasing BBB permeability, as well as up-regulating GLUT-3, GLUT-4, and TRPM6 transporters genes expressions.

Hence, increasing glucose levels in the blood, muscle, and brain were observed after Mg supplementation. Further investigation is needed to explore these mechanisms.

Our data also revealed that maximal muscle lactate accumulation was significantly delayed during the first episode of exercise in the Mg group Figure 3 -B. This may also postpone peripheral fatigue under certain conditions.

Muscle lactate concentrations significantly increase to a peak in response to a short term, intense treadmill exercise [50]. However, Mg delayed the rise of lactate concentrations to the peak for approximately 45 min during the same exercise intensity.

Lactate concentrations rapidly diminished after exercise and returned to the basal level during the recovery period in the Mg group Figure 3 -B. Fatigue is one of the most important factors in impairment of exercise performance.

Fatigue is associated with exercise involving both peripheral and central fatigues. It is commonly accepted that muscle lactate accumulation is one of the causes of peripheral fatigue, reducing the efficiency of muscular contraction and exercise performance.

Muscle lactate is transported into blood via monocarboxylate transporters MCTs and may be converted to glucose later via the Cori cycle in the liver [51] , [52]. The additional glucose is then returned to the blood vessels for continuous use by the muscle as an additional energy source.

Furthermore, Mg involves the synthesis of ATP by activating adenosine triphosphate and contributes to the fundamental energy supply. Our data demonstrate that muscle lactate accumulation is delayed Figure 3 -B and higher blood glucose concentrations Figure 2 -A are available after Mg administration in exercising rats.

This may suggest Mg enhances exercise performance by activating the transportation of glucose or increasing glucose available in the blood, muscle and brain.

Central fatigue is thought to be associated to an insufficient energy supply, involving various substrates secreted within the brain. In our data, brain lactate was significantly increased during and after exercise, especially in the Mg group Figure 2 -C.

Mg may enhance exercise performance by means of increasing lactate molecules via one or more as yet unknown mechanisms. Lactate is a metabolite of glucose, and it has been considered a metabolic waste in the past. However, there is clear evidence indicating lactate can be utilized as an adequate energy substrate for brain tissues [53] , [54].

Lactate has been postulated to act as a pseudo-hormone as well as cell signaling substrate which can influence the delivery of oxidative and gluconeogenic substrates [55]. However, to respond to sudden increases in energy required during exercise, astrocytes break down glycogen to lactate, and export it to neurons as a fuel to support axonal functions when glucose supply is inadequate or unavailable [56] , [57].

Mg may enhance the expression of the astrocyte-neuron lactate shuttle by increasing BBB permeability, which may account for the further increase in brain lactate in the Mg group. In sport science research, repeated blood samples were obtained from the tail vein or using retro-orbital puncture before and after exercise [58].

However, these techniques cannot be done repeatedly within a short period in the same animal. These conventional techniques are associated with stressful behavioral responses during blood sampling [59] , [60].

Moreover, these stressful behavioral responses and changes, measured before or after exercise, may not represent their actual dynamic changes during exercise.

Therefore, the use of a silicone catheter implanted into the jugular vein, and sampling by an auto- sampling system DR-II may resolve this experimental problem.

In addition, microdialysis is a suitable technique allowing continuous sampling from the extracellular space of brain and muscle tissues in free-moving animals [61].

In the present study, the auto-blood sampling system was combined with microdialysis techniques to determine the glucose and lactate concentrations simultaneously in the blood, muscle, and brain during exercise.

To the best of our knowledge, this is the first experiment to combine these techniques in an exercising rat model to investigate dynamic changes of glucose and lactate levels multiple locations in sport science.

Our data demonstrate that Mg possibly enables the provision of an adequate glucose source by increasing glucose availability and facilitating the clearance of lactate. An integral system for the simultaneous determination of dynamic changes in glucose and lactate in the blood, muscle, and brain of exercising rats was established.

Further research is needed to elucidate the mechanisms involved by exploring the regulation of Mg and glucose transporters during exercise. In addition, the newly developed technique described herein may allow for a better understanding of continuous changes in any other candidate compounds in the peripheral and central systems using animal models.

We thank the Biostatistics Task Force of Taichung Veterans General Hospital for their assistance with the statistical analyses. Conceived and designed the experiments: MFW FCC. Performed the experiments: HYC FCC.

Analyzed the data: HYC FCC HCP. Wrote the paper: HYC FCC. Browse Subject Areas? Click through the PLOS taxonomy to find articles in your field.

Article Authors Metrics Comments Media Coverage Reader Comments Figures. Abstract Glucose mobilization and utilization in the periphery and central nervous system are important during exercise and are responsible for exercise efficacy.

Introduction Glucose is the major energy source in cells, and glucose mobilization in the circulatory system and local body systemsduring exercise is postulated to involve a complex mechanism [1]. Materials and Methods Ethics Statement Animal care and experimental procedures were approved Permit Number: La by the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee IACUC of Taichung Veterans General Hospital.

Animal Adult male 8-weeks-old Sprague-Dawley SD rats weighing between — g were purchased from BioLASCO Taiwan Co. Download: PPT. Figure 1. Schematic of a rat on the exercise treadmill with a combined auto-blood sampling and microdialysis systems.

Statistical Analysis All data are expressed as mean ± SEM. Results Glucose Changes in the Blood, Muscle, and Brain The basal concentrations of muscle, blood and brain glucose were shown in Table 1.

Figure 2. Time profiles of the effect of Mg on the changes in glucose concentrations in the A : blood, B : muscle, and C : brain.

Table 1. Mean ± SEM basal levels of glucose and lactate concentrations in the blood, muscle, and brain in control and magnesium Mg groups. Lactate Changes in the Blood, Muscle, and Brain The basal concentrations of muscle, blood and brain lactate were shown in Table 1.

Figure 3. Time profiles of the effect of Mg on the changes in lactate concentrations in the A : blood, B : muscle, and C : brain. Discussion Mg administration significantly enhanced the availability of glucose in the blood, muscle, and brain, but diminished the accumulation of lactate concentrations in blood and muscle in exercise.

Glucose in Blood, Muscle, and Brain Exercise elevates whole body glucose production and utilization to meet fuel demands. Lactate Changes in the Blood, Muscle, and Brain Our data also revealed that maximal muscle lactate accumulation was significantly delayed during the first episode of exercise in the Mg group Figure 3 -B.

Techniques Overcome Repeated Sampling Limitation In sport science research, repeated blood samples were obtained from the tail vein or using retro-orbital puncture before and after exercise [58].

Conclusion Our data demonstrate that Mg possibly enables the provision of an adequate glucose source by increasing glucose availability and facilitating the clearance of lactate. Acknowledgments We thank the Biostatistics Task Force of Taichung Veterans General Hospital for their assistance with the statistical analyses.

Author Contributions Conceived and designed the experiments: MFW FCC. References 1. Kjaer M Hepatic glucose production during exercise.

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To investigate the effect of a single session tDCS of DLPFC 2 mA for 15 min on the force-velocity relationship, strength training volume, movement velocity, and PRE in healthy non-professional participants, Alix-Fages et al.

Lattari et al. Angius et al. Participants were able to cycle for longer durations after tDCS, with lower HR and RPE compared to sham. It is important to note that despite the positive results previously reported, some studies, however, have found no improvement using relatively similar protocols to the previous studies.

Holgado et al. They concluded neither power output, heart rate, RPE nor electroencephalography activity were affected by tDCS. Similarly, the two studies on the effects of tDCS of TC on EP, are also concluded opposite conflicting findings on EP.

Evidence shows that a single session tDCS 20 min, 2 mA of TC, targeting the left insular cortex IC , enhanced cycling performance in professional cyclists.

They also showed that tDCS of TC decreases heart rate and increased delay in parasympathetic vagal withdrawal and RPE in submaximal exercise intensities Okano et al.

Unlike the positive findings in the above study, Okano et al. The findings of this study suggest that tCDS of TC does not modulate either heart rate at rest or heart rate, RPE, and affective responses during exercise. Sasada et al. The results suggest that DCS of spinal cord using a Halo Sport system can enhance the output in these three physical fitness measures in physically active participants.

The Halo Sport device is a commercial brain stimulation device that contains a headset like a usual headphone. This device uses weak direct currents below 2—3 mA tDCS which can be applied bilaterally over the scalp through surface electrodes.

The main objective of this application is the induction of changes in motor cortex in both sides of the brain. Huang et al. Peak and mean power output were measured for 5 × 6-s sprints interspersed with 24 s of active recovery on a cycle ergometer.

The results suggest that tDCS with the Halo Sport system can enhance mean power output in physically active participants. In another study, Codella et al. All participants underwent either stimulation or sham, before a vertical jump, sit and reach, and endurance running tests.

The results suggest that tDCS with the Halo Sport system can enhance the output in these three physical fitness measures in physically active participants. The underlying mechanisms behind the positive effects of tDCS of M1 on EP are not fully understood yet.

Literature indicates the following mechanisms behind the effects of a-tDCS on the enhancement of EP:. TDCS depends on the parameters used, may facilitate the M1, and therefore enhancing corticospinal excitability during exercise Cogiamanian et al.

This hypothesis is challenged by Abdelmoula et al. TDCS of M1 may also lead to a reduction of fatigue Cogiamanian et al. A neural pathway that connects a large number of brain areas, including, the spinal cord, thalamus, secondary somatosensory cortex, medial IC, posterior cingulate cortex, anterior cingulate cortex, premotor area, supplementary motor area, and M1 represents the inhibitory network which leads to fatigue.

The balance between inhibitory and facilitatory mechanisms in the M1 optimize the cortical excitability and therefore increase the magnitude of EP. Application of tDCS may induces facilitatory effects to increase motor output from the M1 helps to overcome the existing central fatigue Vitor-Costa Okuno et al.

Decision making-process during pacing and cognitive control necessary to choose an optimal pacing strategy may be disrupted by mental fatigue Martin et al.

This disruption is much more evident in long-term aerobic types of exercise. TDCS of DLPFC is a non-invasive technique for the reduction of mental fatigue and therefore enhancement of PE Nikooharf Salehi et al. It should be noted that this reduction is only affecting submaximal endurance type of exercise.

Literature indicates that mental fatigue does not affect athletes' maximal strength and anaerobic work Boksem et al. The difference in the adaptation of athletes for their power output during these long and short duration tasks could be the reason behind this difference Gandevia, Reduction of RPE following application of tDCS is considered as one of the other reasons behind increased EP in several studies Okano et al.

Modulation of sensory perception of effort plays a crucial role in the control of motor output commands Okano et al. Overall, the amount of motor commands from M1 or premotor area is considered as the reason behind the changes in RPE de Morree et al.

Literature indicates that the autonomic nervous system ANS has an important role in the regulation of EP Okano et al. Literature supports the association between TC and IC, with ANS control. Therefore, tDCS can modulate the cortical areas directly under the electrodes related to ANS.

ANS is highly related to the mechanisms behind EP and fatigue. It controls homeostatic mechanisms Damasio et al. Indeed, ANS responses are linked to EP in healthy individuals Tanaka et al. Individuals with higher fitness levels high aerobic capacity usually have significantly greater heart rate variability, which is controlled by vagal modulation of the heart rate, compared to individuals with lower fitness levels low aerobic capacity Tulppo et al.

The effects of pain-inducing substances suggest that perception of pain is one of the important regulators of exertion level during fatiguing exercise. Literature shows that a common analgesic such as Acetaminophen increases cycling performance Mauger et al.

Recent literature indicates that endogenous inhibitory responses, which normally act to decrease nociceptive input and reduce the perception of pain, could be increased following application of tDCS over M1 Flood et al. TDCS stimulates descending regions associated with endogenous pain inhibition, enhancing central pain inhibitory responses and causing widespread analgesia Flood et al.

The association between the pain inhibitory networks and regulation of EP is challenged by the study of Flood et al. There are a number of issues regarding the studies reported in this review which may have implications for future research:.

Almost all studies reported in this review used single session tDCS. Multiple session tDCS studies are recommended because of its accumulating effects.

Majority of studies, used unilateral tDCS of M1. New studies using bilateral tDCS of M1 for both upper limbs, trunk and lower limb muscles are recommended specially in cases that the activity involve trunk and all extremities.

Single site tDCS of a brain site was used in almost all of the included studies. It should be noted that multiple sites of the brain never working in isolation. Multi-site application of tDCS is recommended for future studies. In almost all of the included studies, large tDCS electrodes 5 x 7 or 4—6 cm 2 were used for modulation of single sites of the brain.

New tDCS studies using small electrodes is recommended to increase focality of the effects. Literature indicates that modulation of M1, DLPFC, TC, IC, and SMA using unilateral or bilateral tDCS techniques enables us to benefit from these mechanisms. SJ and MZ contributed to all steps including the design of the review to writing of the first and other drafts of the review.

Both authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest. All claims expressed in this article are solely those of the authors and do not necessarily represent those of their affiliated organizations, or those of the publisher, the editors and the reviewers.

Any product that may be evaluated in this article, or claim that may be made by its manufacturer, is not guaranteed or endorsed by the publisher.

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