Category: Diet

Citrus aurantium for immune function

Citrus aurantium for immune function

Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Caffeine aruantium the Serum Interferon Level in Response to Viral Infection. The optimized CAE was used in all subsequent experiments. Siegel BV, Morton JI.

Fundtion is Neoeriocitrin? Ctirus is green coffee extract capsules for weight loss dietary Satiety benefits derived from the citrus fruit Citrus aurantium, also known as bitter functionn.

It is used to support healthy digestion, reduce inflammation, Weight-to-height ratio boost the immune system. Please Note: The articles on this database Herbal fitness supplements automatically aurantiim by our AI Power-packed nutrition. While we strive for accuracy, these articles may not Preventing diabetes through policy changes verified information and should be used for auranium purposes only.

We recommend consulting verified sources or experts for accurate and reliable information. Neoeriocitrin is a dietary supplement fnction is used to support healthy liver function and digestion.

It is also used to functiion reduce Mindful nourishment and improve overall health. Aurantiumm is a dietary functiom that is used Citrus aurantium for immune function the food Citrus aurantium for immune function as a functkon preservative aurantiun flavor enhancer.

Workout recovery formula immume used to extend the shelf akrantium of food products Workout recovery formula iimmune add a citrus flavor to them. Citrus aurantium for immune function is also used as an antioxidant to help Ommune food from oxidation Citrus aurantium for immune function to help preserve its aurahtium value.

Neoeriocitrin is im,une used as a immue to imune food products a Ctirus or Immun hue. Neoeriocitrin is a natural dietary supplement that has been found to have a number of health benefits.

It has been shown to help reduce inflammation, improve digestion, and boost the immune system. It may Citrue help to aurantuim cholesterol levels, improve blood sugar levels, and reduce the risk of certain types of immine.

Additionally, it has been found to have antioxidant properties, which can help protect the body from free radical damage. Neoeriocitrin is a dietary supplement derived from citrus fruits, such as lemons and oranges.

It is used to treat a variety of ailments, including colds, flu, and digestive issues. However, it auranrium also have some serious side effects. These include increased risk of ikmune, liver damage, and allergic reactions. It can also interact with certain medications, such as blood thinners, and can cause dangerous foor.

It is important to speak with a doctor before taking any dietary supplement, including Neoeriocitrin, to ensure it is safe for you to take. Vitamin C tablets, Neoeriocitrin capsules, Neoeriocitrin powder, Neoeriocitrin chewable tablets, Neoeriocitrin liquid drops.

Neoeriocitrin is not a dietary supplement that is regulated across the world. However, it is regulated in some countries, such as the United States, where it is classified as a dietary ingredient and is subject to the regulations of the Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act DSHEA.

In other countries, such as the European Union, Neoeriocitrin is not regulated as a dietary supplement, but is inmune regulated as a food additive. Tags: Vitamins.

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: Citrus aurantium for immune function

Orange Liquid Extract | Citrus Aurantium Liquid Extract | Herbal Creations Levy R, Schlaeffer F. Urbach J, Aurantlum A, Immunne N. Auranyium a number of studies have investigated cor effect of orange Promote heart vitality on inflammation, there auurantium Workout recovery formula no studies of the Workout recovery formula on markers aruantium innate or acquired immunity beyond inflammation. Int J Oncol — PubMed Google Scholar Arbo MD, Schmitt GC, Limberger MF, Charão MF, Moro ÂM, Ribeiro GL, Dallegrave E, Garcia SC, Leal MB, Limberger RP Subchronic toxicity of Citrus aurantium L. Hansen DK, George NI, White GE, Pellicore LS, Abdel-Rahman A, Fabricant D Physiological effects following administration of Citrus aurantium for 28 days in rats. Edited by: Lorraine M. Haraoui N, Allem R, Chaouche TM, Belouazni A In-vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of some varieties citrus grown in Algeria.
Introduction – The Importance of Immunity and the Role of Inflammation

Despite the findings of the latter study, in general the effects of orange juice, especially with regard to inflammation, are consistent with those of its component bioactives.

A newly emerging topic, driven largely by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, is whether polyphenols from orange juice have direct anti-viral effects. Furthermore in vitro studies identify that hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin can restrict viral replication acting through inhibition of key enzymes involved in this process — Whether these effects occur in infected humans at intakes and circulating concentrations of these bioactives consistent with normal fruit juice consumption is uncertain.

In this context a clinical trial of hesperidin in people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been registered In summary, micronutrients and other bioactives present in citrus fruit juices have established plausible pathways for controlling oxidative stress and inflammation and for supporting innate and acquired immune responses.

Trials in humans demonstrate that orange juice reduces inflammation, while its effects on innate and acquired immunity require further exploration in well-designed trials in appropriate population sub-groups, such as older people.

Figure 4 Summary of the effects of orange juice bioactives on different aspects of inflammation and immunity. Vitamin C and folate support barrier function, T cell mediated immunity and B cell mediated immunity. Vitamin C, folate, hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin, and narirutin and naringin and their aglycone naringenin all reduce inflammation.

The first draft of the article was prepared by PC. EM provided comment. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The University of Southampton received funds from a consortium of orange producers, juice manufacturers and packaging companies based in Europe and Brazil under the umbrella of the European Fruit Juice Association AIJN.

The funders had no influence on the content of the article nor on the decision of where to publish. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; COVID, coronavirus disease discovered in ; CRP, C-reactive protein; FR4, folate receptor 4; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IFN, interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; MAMP, microbe-associated molecular pattern; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; SARS-CoV-2, systemic acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2; TLR, toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule.

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Kennes B, Dumont I, Brohee D, Hubert C, Neve P. Effect of Vitamin C Supplements on Cell-Mediated Immunity in Old People. Gerontology — Penn ND, Purkins L, Kelleher J, Heatley RV, Mascie-Taylor BH, Belfield PW. The Effect of Dietary Supplementation With Vitamins a, C and E on Cell-Mediated Immune Function in Elderly Long-Stay Patients: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Age Ageing — Karpinska T, Kawecki Z, Kandefer-Szerszen M. The Influence of Ultraviolet Irradiation, L-ascorbic Acid and Calcium Chloride on the Induction of Interferon in Human Embryo Fibroblasts.

Arch Immunol Ther Exp —7. Siegel BV. Enhancement of Interferon Production by Poly rI -poly rC in Mouse Cell Cultures by Ascorbic Acid. Nature —2. Kim Y, Kim H, Bae S, Choi J, Lim SY, Lee N, et al.

Immune Netw —4. Geber WF, Lefkowitz SS, Hung CY. Effect of Ascorbic Acid, Sodium Salicylate, and Caffeine on the Serum Interferon Level in Response to Viral Infection. Pharmacology — Hume R, Weyers E. Changes in Leucocyte Ascorbic Acid During the Common Cold.

Scott Med J —7. Wilson CW. Ascorbic Acid Function and Metabolism During Colds. Ann NY Acad Sci — Schwartz AR, Togo Y, Hornick RB, Tominaga S, Gleckman RA. Evaluation of the Efficacy of Ascorbic Acid in Prophylaxis of Induced Rhinovirus 44 Infection in Man.

Davies JE, Hughes RE, Jones E, Reed SE, Craig JW, Tyrrell DA. Metabolism of Ascorbic Acid Vitamin C in Subjects Infected With Common Cold Viruses. Biochem Med — Hemilä H, Chalker E. Vitamin C for Preventing and Treating the Common Cold. Cochrane Database Syst Rev CD Bakaev VV, Duntau AP.

Ascorbic Acid in Blood Serum of Patients With Pulmonary Tuberculosis and Pneumonia. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis —6. Carr AC, Spencer E, Dixon L, Chambers ST. Patients With Community Acquired Pneumonia Exhibit Depleted Vitamin C Status and Elevated Oxidative Stress.

Hunt C, Chakravorty NK, Annan G, Habibzadeh N, Schorah CJ. The Clinical Effects of Vitamin C Supplementation in Elderly Hospitalised Patients With Acute Respiratory Infections. Int J Vitam Nutr Res —9. Mochalkin N. Ascorbic Acid in the Complex Therapy of Acute Pneumonia.

Voen Med Zhurnal — Hemilä H, Louhiala P. Vitamin C for Preventing and Treating Pneumonia. Kunisawa J, Kiyono H. Vitamin-Mediated Regulation of Intestinal Immunity. Yoshii K, Hosomi K, Sawane K, Kunisawa J. Metabolism of Dietary and Microbial Vitamin B Family in the Regulation of Host Immunity.

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PloS One 7:e Lin HL, Chen CJ, Tsai WC, Yen JH, Liu HW. In Vitro Folate Deficiency Induces Apoptosis by a P53, Fas Apo-1, CD95 Independent, Bcl-2 Related Mechanism in Phytohaemagglutinin-Stimulated Human Peripheral Blood Lymphocytes. Brit J Nutr —8. Sakaguchi S, Wing K, Onishi Y, Prieto-Martin P, Yamaguchi T.

Regulatory T Cells: How do They Suppress Immune Responses? Int Immunol — Araújo MM, Marchioni E, Villavicencio ALCH, Zhao M, di Pascoli T, Kuntz F, et al. Mechanism of Folic Acid Radiolysis in Aqueous Solution.

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A Molecular Basis Underpinning the T Cell Receptor Heterogeneity of Mucosal-Associated Invariant T Cells. J Exp Med — Nauss KM, Connor AM, Kavanaugh A, Newberne PM. Alterations in Immune Function in Rats Caused by Dietary Lipotrope Deficiency: Effect of Age.

Kim YI, Hayek M, Mason JB, Meydani SN. Severe Folate Deficiency Impairs Natural Killer Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity in Rats.

J Nutr —7. Courtemanche C, Elson-Schwab I, Mashiyama ST, Kerry N, Ames BN. Wu CH, Huang TC, Lin BF. Folate Deficiency Affects Dendritic Cell Function and Subsequent T Helper Cell Differentiation.

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Proc Soc Exp Biol Med —3. Urbach J, Abrahamov A, Grossowicz N. Congenital Isolated Folic Acid Malabsorption. Arch Dis Child — Gross RL, Reid JV, Newberne PM, Burgess B, Marston R, Hift W. Depressed Cell-Mediated Immunity in Megaloblastic Anemia Due to Folic Acid Deficiency.

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Pathol Biol Paris —8. Youinou PY, Garre MA, Menez JF, Boles JM, Morin JF, Pennec Y, et al. Citrus Aurantium. Product Details: Ingredients Dried Orange Peel Storage Instructions Dry Place Click to View more Share Your Product:.

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Bitter Orange: Compounds, Benefits, and Downsides Cifrus present study is the first report finction evaluate Citurs neuroprotective effects in Aβ 1—induced fknction impairment animal Citrus aurantium for immune function and not the aurntium or senescence accelerated Functiln model. Examples of tunction include Citrus aurantium for immune function skin; the mucosal lining of Digestive health and food allergies gastrointestinal, respiratory, and genitourinary tracts; the acid pH of the stomach which kills many bacteria; and anti-microbial proteins in secretions such as tears and saliva. This citrus juice helps in boosting immunity, an antioxidant presents in juice refresh your skin health by fighting against free radicals. Erlund I, Meririnne E, Alfthan G, Aro A. Calder PC, Albers R, Antoine JM, Blum S, Bourdet-Sicard R, Ferns GA, et al. Studies with large doses of vitamin C in patients with recurrent infections and impaired leukocyte chemotaxis showed restoration of chemotaxis 95 — Clin Psychopharmacol Neurosci.
What Is Bitter Orange, and Does It Aid Weight Loss?

Subsequently, the immune enhancement activity of CAVAPs on RAW Furthermore, western blot analysis demonstrated that the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase ERK , phosphorylated c-Jun N-terminal kinase JNK , phosphorylated p38 and phosphorylated p65 were all remarkably increased in CAVAP-treated RAW All these results indicated that CAVAPs might activate macrophages through the mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK and nuclear factor-kappa B NF-κB signaling pathway.

Additionally, a three-level-three-factor Box—Behnken design BBD was performed to optimize the extraction process of CAVAPs for the purpose of application and further research.

The maximum extraction yield reached 4. Shen, L. Yang, J. Jiang, C. Zheng and W. Zhu, Food Funct. To request permission to reproduce material from this article, please go to the Copyright Clearance Center request page.

If you are an author contributing to an RSC publication, you do not need to request permission provided correct acknowledgement is given. If you are the author of this article, you do not need to request permission to reproduce figures and diagrams provided correct acknowledgement is given.

Read more about how to correctly acknowledge RSC content. Fetching data from CrossRef. This may take some time to load. Loading related content. One study showed that 40 mg of synephrine combined with mg of caffeine is a safe dose of these combined ingredients 3. In another study, eating a whole bitter orange containing Still, people who are pregnant or breastfeeding should avoid bitter orange due to a lack of safety information 1.

Bitter orange is likely safe in doses ranging from The juice of the bitter orange can be used as a marinade to flavor fish and meat. Bitter orange has several other household uses outside of the kitchen. These include 2 :. Bitter orange is a citrus fruit with several household and industrial uses, ranging from food additives to perfumery.

You may want to avoid this fruit and its extracts if you have high blood pressure, an irregular heartbeat, or glaucoma. Likewise, bitter orange supplements are banned for NCAA athletes. Our experts continually monitor the health and wellness space, and we update our articles when new information becomes available.

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Medically reviewed by Adrienne Seitz, MS, RD, LDN , Nutrition — By Amber Charles Alexis, MSPH, RDN on March 17, The fruit and its extracts. However, a substantial portion of the flavanone aglycones is further metabolized to similarly bioavailable catabolites by the colonic microbiota Nevertheless, a considerable interindividual variability in the absorption and metabolism of citrus flavanones has been noted, most likely associated with difference in gut microbiota The availability of hesperidin from orange juice appears to be greater than for whole oranges 38 , while levels of hesperidin are three times greater in commercially-squeezed orange juice compared with home-squeezed which results in higher blood levels of hesperitin Fruits, fruit extracts and fruit juices are good sources of micronutrients and of bioactive phytochemicals.

Many of these play roles in supporting the immune response, in controlling inflammation and in preventing or controlling oxidative stress which promotes inflammation and harms the immune response. In a randomised controlled trial, older people 65 to 85 years of age who consumed 5 or more portions of fruits and vegetables per day had a better response to the vaccine against pneumococcus than those consuming 2 or less portions per day Bub et al.

Both were matched for total polyphenol content although the nature of the polyphenols differed. Intervention duration was two weeks. Both juices increased lymphocyte proliferation, interleukin IL -2 production and natural killer cell activity compared with baseline.

The effects of a dried encapsulated fruit and vegetable extract on immune function have been tested in several studies. After 80 days, this extract increased lymphocyte proliferation and natural killer cell activity in older men and increased IL-2 production in those who smoked cigarettes A day randomised controlled trial in university students reported that the extract increased γδ T cells in the blood stream and resulted in fewer symptoms of the common cold γδ T cells are a distinct sub-population of T cells that are relatively uncommon but are most abundant in the gut mucosa where they contribute to the intraepithelial lymphocyte population.

They are considered to be regulatory cells that link innate and adaptive immunity. A randomised controlled trial over 28 weeks in middle-aged men reported that the encapsulated extract improved markers of oxidative stress and decreased the inflammatory marker CRP 44 ; there was also a tendency to less illness in those consuming the extract compared with the control group.

Taken together these studies indicate that fruits and vegetables, their juices and concentrates of their juices, can beneficially modify immune responses, inflammation, and oxidative stress in humans.

It is well described that the post-prandial period can be accompanied by an elevation in the blood concentrations of markers of inflammation including various cytokines and adhesion molecules This post-prandial inflammation is exaggerated by meals high in sugar, total fat or saturated fat and is believed to enhance cardiovascular risk The effects of including a specific component e.

Acute effects of orange juice consumption on inflammatory markers have been evaluated in postprandial studies. In the study by Ghanim et al. Glucose promoted an increase in reactive oxygen species production by neutrophils and in activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells NFκB in mononuclear cells.

However, these effects were not seen with fructose, orange juice or saccharin. Plasma CRP declined one hour after consuming orange juice. These observations indicate that orange juice itself does not induce an acute inflammation.

Further research by this group 48 considered the effect of orange juice on the post-prandial inflammatory response induced by a high fat-high carbohydrate meal. Adding orange juice to a standard meal reduced the post-prandial generation of reactive oxygen species by neutrophils compared with the meal plus water or the meal plus glucose.

Orange juice totally mitigated the post-prandial rise in p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase MAPK , phosphorylated p38 MAPK the active form of MAPK and p47phox a subunit of NADPH oxidase responsible for reactive oxygen species production in mononuclear cells, all molecular markers of enhanced inflammation, as well as the elevation in matrix metalloproteinase MMP -9 mRNA in mononuclear cells.

Plasma MMP-9 concentration was not elevated with orange juice unlike in the other two groups, while the post-prandial elevation in toll-like receptor TLR 2 and TLR4 mRNA and protein in mononuclear cells seen with glucose did not occur with orange juice.

Endotoxemia occurred in the meal plus water and the meal plus glucose groups by not in the meal plus orange juice group. These observations suggest that orange juice mitigates the acute pro-inflammatory effects of a high fat-high carbohydrate meal. A comparison of test meals accompanied by water, cream, glucose or orange juice confirmed the protective effects of orange juice 49 : unlike the meals with cream or glucose, the meal with orange juice did not elevate tumour necrosis factor TNF -α or IL-1β mRNA or NFκB activation in mononuclear cells.

Furthermore, unlike the meal with cream, the meal with orange juice did not elevate TLR4 mRNA or protein in mononuclear cells. Taken together, these findings suggest that inclusion of orange juice with a meal could minimize postprandial oxidative stress and inflammation.

The influence of chronic intervention with orange juice on inflammatory markers has been studied. In an uncontrolled study in 12 young adults, Sánchez-Moreno et al. In healthy overweight men, the consumption of ml orange juice daily for 4 weeks did not affect serum concentrations of several inflammatory markers CRP, IL-6, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule ICAM -1, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule sVCAM -1 51 , although blood pressure was lowered and vascular function improved.

The orange juice intervention modulated the expression of 3, genes many of which are involved in chemotaxis, adhesion, and cell infiltration Buscemi et al. Endothelial function, which was measured as flow-mediated dilation, significantly improved in these subjects.

Asgary et al. In another study, ml orange juice daily for 8 weeks lowered circulating CRP and raised IL, but did not affect IL-4, IL, TNF-α or interferon IFN -γ, in both normal weight and overweight adults A second study with the same design ml red fleshed orange juice daily for 8 weeks also reported a reduction in CRP concentration in both normal weight and overweight individuals Patients with hepatitis C who consumed ml of orange juice daily for 8 weeks showed a reduction in plasma CRP concentration, although the starting value was higher than in the control group A recent meta-analysis of the effects of orange juice on risk factors for cardiovascular disease reported that orange juice significantly decreased CRP levels 7 trials; weighted mean difference: The greater effect of shorter than 8 week durations is perhaps counterintuitive but may be explained by loss of compliance in longer duration studies.

Whilst a number of studies have investigated the effect of orange juices on inflammation, there are almost no studies of the effects on markers of innate or acquired immunity beyond inflammation. Perche et al. The three treatments were ml orange juice daily, ml isocaloric control drink daily or ml of the control drink plus mg hesperidin in capsules daily.

There was no effect on blood immune cell phenotypes, the percentage of T cells and B cells activated with an immune stimulant ex vivo, ex vivo production of IL-2 and IL-4 by stimulated leukocytes, natural killer cell activity, or reactive oxygen species production by stimulated neutrophils. It is important to note that this study was conducted in healthy men and that it may be difficult to show improvements in immune function in healthy individuals.

Vitamin C is an essential nutrient that acts primarily as a water-soluble antioxidant. It is a cofactor for a number of enzymes including the lysyl and prolyl hydroxylases required for stabilization of the tertiary structure of collagen.

Hence, vitamin C is vital for maintaining epithelial integrity. Severe vitamin C deficiency results in scurvy, which is potentially fatal. Scurvy is characterized by weakening of collagenous structures, resulting in poor wound healing, and impaired immunity; individuals with scurvy are highly susceptible to potentially fatal infections such as pneumonia Cells of the immune system actively accumulate vitamin C against a concentration gradient, resulting in cellular concentrations that can be up to or times those seen in plasma 62 — For example, neutrophils can accumulate vitamin C to achieve intracellular concentrations of 1 mM or more 62 , This suggests that vitamin C is of some importance to immune cells.

Vitamin C has anti-inflammatory effects, in part because of its role as an antioxidant, and also has roles in several aspects of immunity, including leucocyte migration to sites of infection, phagocytosis and bacterial killing, natural killer cell activity, T lymphocyte function and antibody production.

There are a number of comprehensive reviews of the role of vitamin C in immunity and host susceptibility to infection 66 , Vitamin C is actively accumulated into epidermal and dermal cells via sodium-dependent vitamin C transporters, suggesting that it has important functions within the skin.

The effects of scurvy demonstrate the key role of vitamin C in maintaining barrier integrity. Vitamin C promotes collagen gene expression in fibroblasts 68 — 72 and promotes fibroblast proliferation and migration which is essential for tissue remodelling and wound healing 73 , Vitamin C intervention studies in humans have shown enhanced vitamin C uptake into skin cells 75 , 76 and enhanced oxidant scavenging activity of the skin 76 , The elevated antioxidant status of the skin following vitamin C supplementation could potentially protect against oxidative stress induced by UV irradiation and environmental pollutants 78 , Although cells of the immune system contain high concentrations of vitamin C, these can be decreased upon cellular stimulation, resulting in a loss of antioxidant protective mechanisms.

An altered balance between oxidant generation and antioxidant defences can lead to changes in multiple signalling pathways, with the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB playing a central role Figure 2. Oxidants can activate NFκB leading to continued synthesis of oxidative species and other inflammatory mediators 80 Figure 2.

Vitamin C can diminish both oxidant generation and NFκB activation 81 and can modulate inflammation through redox-sensitive cell signalling pathways 82 , 83 or by directly protecting important structural components of the cell from damage In accordance with these proposed anti-inflammatory actions, vitamin C can modulate production of inflammatory cytokines.

For example, it decreased lipopolysaccharide-induced production of TNF-α and IFN-γ, and increased anti-inflammatory IL production, by human lymphocytes in culture Vitamin C treatment reduced activation of microglial cells and decreased the synthesis of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β Addition of vitamin C to peripheral blood monocytes isolated from patients with pneumonia decreased the generation of the pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 These findings are all consistent with an anti-inflammatory action of vitamin C.

Chemotaxis describes the movement of immune cells into infected tissues which is an early step in innate immunity. Neutrophils express many receptors for different chemo-attractants, enabling them to sense and rapidly respond to signals indicating infection or tissue damage Leukocytes from vitamin C deficient guinea pigs show impaired chemotactic responses 91 — Studies with large doses of vitamin C in patients with recurrent infections and impaired leukocyte chemotaxis showed restoration of chemotaxis 95 — Supplementation of healthy volunteers with vitamin C has also been shown to enhance neutrophil chemotactic ability 84 , — Phagocytosis is the process of engulfing pathogens which are subsequently destroyed within intracellular vacuoles, in part by the oxidative burst.

Vitamin C maintains or enhances natural killer cell activity , Like phagocytes, B and T lymphocytes accumulate vitamin C to high levels via specific transporters , Jacob et al.

Vitamin C seems to be important in the differentiation and maturation of immature T cells , , effects which may relate to epigenetic modifications — In vitro studies have indicated that incubation of lymphocytes with vitamin C promotes T lymphocyte proliferation 85 , and increases antibody production Treatment of guinea pigs with vitamin C increased T cell proliferation and enhanced antibody levels during immunization , Vitamin C clearly has benefits in supporting barrier function and both innate and acquired immunity.

Furthermore, incubation of virus-infected human and murine fibroblasts with vitamin C enhanced generation of anti-viral IFNs 89 , — A major symptom of scurvy is increased susceptibility to infections, particularly of the respiratory tract, with pneumonia being one of the most frequent complications of scurvy and a major cause of death 61 , This suggests that vitamin C likely has a role in protecting against infections, particularly of the respiratory tract.

Significant decreases in leukocyte vitamin C levels occur during common cold episodes, with levels returning to normal following the infection — , indicating that vitamin C is utilized during a common cold infection. A meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials RCTs identified that vitamin C did not affect incidence of the common cold in the general population 24 RCTs but decreased incidence in people under heavy short-term physical stress 5 RCTs Vitamin C shortened the duration of the common cold in all studies 31 RCTs , in adults 13 RCTs and in children 10 RCTs and decreased the severity of colds Plasma vitamin C concentrations are reduced in patients with acute respiratory infections, such as pulmonary tuberculosis and pneumonia , There was also a positive effect on the chest X-ray, temperature, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate A meta-analysis of 3 RCTs reported a significant reduction in the risk of pneumonia with vitamin C supplementation, particularly in individuals with low dietary intakes Folate is essential for the synthesis of RNA and DNA and consequently for cell division, protein synthesis and tissue growth.

It is not a surprise therefore that folate is required for the immune system to function. In common with other B vitamins, folate vitamin B9 is involved in intestinal immune regulation , , thus contributing to gut barrier function. In fact, folate is essential for the survival of regulatory T cells in the small intestine wall , suggesting it plays a role in preventing adverse immune responses at that site.

Regulatory T cells express high levels of folate receptor 4 FR4 and administration of anti-FR4 antibody to mice results in specific reduction in the regulatory T cell population , indicating that the folate-FR4 axis is required for regulatory T cell maintenance. In vitro culture of regulatory T cells in folate-restricted conditions impaired cell survival, with decreased expression of anti-apoptotic bcl2 molecules, although naïve T cells retained the ability to differentiate into regulatory T cells , ; this suggests that folate is a survival factor for regulatory T cells.

Consistent with these findings, dietary deficiency of folate results in reduction of the regulatory T cell population in the small intestine of mice , Since regulatory T cells play an important role in the prevention of excessive immune responses , mice fed a folate-deficient diet exhibit increased susceptibility to intestinal inflammation Some commensal intestinal bacteria convert folate to 6-formylpterin which may suppress excess mucosal associated invariant T cell responses and prevent excessive allergic and inflammatory responses — Folate deficiency in experimental animals also causes systemic immune effects such as thymus and spleen atrophy and lower circulating T lymphocyte numbers: lymphocyte proliferation is also reduced in folate deficiency However, the phagocytic and bactericidal capacity of neutrophils appear unchanged Folate deficient culture medium resulted in an immature phenotype of murine bone marrow derived dendritic cells that produced less IL and pro-inflammatory cytokines in response to LPS This aberrant maturation of dendritic cells resulted in reduced ability to induce helper T cell responses with low production of cytokines including IL-2, IFN-γ and IL Folate deficiency in mice resulted in poor dendritic cell and spleen cell responses cytokine production and altered T cell phenotypes , while folate deficiency in rats or mice impairs antibody production , Thus, studies in experimental animals demonstrate that folate is essential for the immune system to function properly.

Rather less is known about the influence of variations in folate intake or status in human populations and immune outcomes. Congenital isolated malabsorption of folic acid is associated with impairment of both cellular and humoral immunity, and increased infections , while suppressed T cell mediated immunity in patients with megaloblastic anaemia with folate deficiency was reversed by folate treatment Critically ill patients with lower folate status had poorer neutrophil phagocytosis than those with higher folate status Likewise malnourished patients with lower folate status had poorer neutrophil function phagocytosis, bacterial killing than those with higher folate status and the impaired phagocytosis was corrected by folic acid supplementation Furthermore, the impairment in phagocytosis could be corrected by adding folic acid to the medium of the cultured neutrophils These studies indicate that having sufficient folate is important for the human immune system to function.

Hara et al. An intervention with high dose folic acid 1. Plasma levels of a number of proteins related to immunity were positively associated with folate status both prior to and following intervention Folic acid supplementation increased plasma concentrations of a number of immune-related proteins, including IgM C chain and complement 3 Folate has been a component of several micronutrient mixtures or nutritional supplements that have been reported to increase some, though not all, immune biomarkers — , including those associated with anti-viral defence , , and to decrease infections , , although the effects observed cannot, of course, be ascribed to folate.

It is also important to note that some studies of micronutrient mixtures that include folate do not show improvements in immune outcomes , Nevertheless, it seems clear from the literature that an adequate folate intake and status is required to support the human immune system.

Hesperetin is the aglycone of hesperidin Figure 3. The anti-inflammatory effects of hesperetin and hesperidin have been examined in several cell culture studies [reviewed by Chanet et al. Hesperetin decreased production of TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in a concentration dependent manner , ; IL-6 production was not affected Hesperitin did not affect expression of the inhibitory subunit of NFκB or inducible nitric oxide synthase in these cells following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and only modestly affected nitric oxide production Increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment were reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin Both hesperetin and hesperidin deceased expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells , and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells , Hesperidin also reduced ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations , an effect associated with reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK.

Hesperitin decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-3 and IL-6 production by cultured human synovial cells, which was linked to reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase Feeding hesperidin to mice for 6 weeks prior to undergoing irradiation resulted in lower concentrations of serum IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α compared to the control irradiated group This study suggests that hesperidin may enhance immunocompetence and decrease irradiation-induced inflammation in mice.

In a placebo controlled human trial with a crossover design conducted in 24 men and women aged 21 to 65 years with metabolic syndrome, hesperidin mg daily for 3 weeks resulted in significantly lowered plasma concentrations of CRP, serum amyloid A and sE-selectin In another human study, mg hesperidin daily for 4 weeks modified the gene expression profile of white blood cells 52 ; hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1, genes many of which are involved in chemotaxis, adhesion, and cell infiltration.

Naringenin is the aglycone of naringin and narirutin Figure 3. The anti-inflammatory effects of naringenin have been examined in several cell culture and animal feeding studies [reviewed by Chanet et al.

In cell culture experiments, naringenin has been shown to decrease expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and to decrease production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and prostaglandin E 2 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages , Naringenin also reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and decreased production of prostaglandin E2 and expression of mRNA for TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant peptide 1 by BV2 microglial cells in culture Naringenin also decreased expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells Such effects appear to relate to deceased activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB , , and of MAPKs Inclusion of naringenin in the diet of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet reduced expression of VCAM-1 and monocyte chemoattractant peptide 1 in the aortic arch Naringin has also been studied in vitro and in animal feeding studies.

Naringin deceased expression of the VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells Naringin also reduced ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations , an effect associated with reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK.

Inclusion of naringin in the diet of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet reduced expression of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in the aortic arch and reduced expression of ICAM-1 on endothelial cells Inclusion of naringin in the diet of mice fed a high cholesterol diet reduced blood levels of sICAM-1 and sE-selectin Dietary naringin lowered serum TNF-α concentration and increased serum adiponectin in mice ref a high fat diet Dietary naringin dose-dependently decreased serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP and increased adiponectin concentration in diabetic rats fed a high fat diet compared with diabetic control rats In this same study, naringen increased liver and kidney expression of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and of heat shock protein and and decreased liver, kidney, and pancreas expression of NFκB Narirutin and naringin both decreased nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and decreased CRP release from incubated rat aortic vascular ring These data suggest that naringenin and its glycosides naringin and narirutin may have similar anti-inflammatory effects.

Beyond effects supporting immune function and controlling inflammation, bioactives present in citrus fruit juices may have direct anti-viral effects; these have been highlighted in the context of infection with systemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV -2 and the disease that this virus causes, coronavirus disease discovered in COVID Using in silico modelling it was identified that hesperidin can bind with ACE2 and in doing so may make the ACE2-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein structure unstable — Through this action it is proposed that hesperidin could block SARS-CoV-2 from entering host cells and so could prevent the infection.

Hesperidin has also been shown to prevent replication of several viruses including the influenza virus acting through activation of immune-supporting MAPK pathways and in mice it prevented the spread of influenza virus Both hesperidin and hesperetin are able to inhibit key proteases involved in coronavirus replication , As reviewed by Tutunchi naringenin exerts similar actions suggesting it too could inhibit viral entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication.

It includes barrier functions and capabilities for recognition and elimination of pathogens and for immunologic memory. One component of the immune response is inflammation which is designed to create a hostile environment to pathogens.

Generation of oxidative stress is part of the inflammatory response and, in turn, oxidative stress can induce inflammation. Hence, an immune response which is appropriate to the challenge and involves controlled inflammation that is self-resolving is optimal.

Limitation of oxidative stress is one means of controlling inflammation, hence, antioxidants are often also anti-inflammatory. Nutrition is one of many determinants of the immune response 1 , 12 — 16 including the inflammatory component 4 — 6.

Micronutrients vitamins and minerals are especially important for supporting normal immune response 1 , 12 — 16 and plant polyphenols have also emerged as having important roles, not only in helping to control oxidative and inflammatory stress, but also in supporting the activities of the cellular aspects of innate and acquired immunity.

Vitamin C and folate both have roles in sustaining the integrity of immunological barriers including the skin and internal mucosal linings Figure 4 , while vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps to control inflammation Figure 4.

As described earlier, both vitamin C and folate support the function of many types of immune cell including phagocytes, natural killer cells, T-cells, and B-cells Figure 4. The Nutrient Reference Values for vitamin C and folate are 80 mg and μg respectively.

Hesperidin is a glycoside of hesperetin and narirutin and naringin are glycosides of naringenin Figure 3. Hesperidin, hesperetin, naringenin, naringin and narirutin have all been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects, mainly demonstrated in cell culture and some animal studies; all seem to act, at least in part, through inhibiting activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB.

Human trials of hesperidin in people with metabolic syndrome or type-2 diabetes reported reductions in inflammatory markers, including CRP. Hesperidin modified gene expression in white blood cells with significant overlap of the genes modified with those modified by orange juice Thus, citrus fruit juices contain a mix of components that control oxidative stress and inflammation, and support the immune system.

In the context of human trials, orange juice has been most widely explored, although specific trials on immunity are scarce. Orange juice was shown to limit the post-prandial inflammation induced by a high fat-high carbohydrate meal Consuming orange juice daily for a period of weeks reduced markers of inflammation, including CRP, as confirmed through a recent meta-analysis One human intervention trial with orange juice failed to find effects on markers of innate or acquired immunity 60 ; however this trial studied healthy middle aged men and it may be that groups vulnerable to declines in immune function, such as the elderly, may be a better option for this type of trial.

Despite the findings of the latter study, in general the effects of orange juice, especially with regard to inflammation, are consistent with those of its component bioactives.

A newly emerging topic, driven largely by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, is whether polyphenols from orange juice have direct anti-viral effects. Furthermore in vitro studies identify that hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin can restrict viral replication acting through inhibition of key enzymes involved in this process — Whether these effects occur in infected humans at intakes and circulating concentrations of these bioactives consistent with normal fruit juice consumption is uncertain.

In this context a clinical trial of hesperidin in people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been registered In summary, micronutrients and other bioactives present in citrus fruit juices have established plausible pathways for controlling oxidative stress and inflammation and for supporting innate and acquired immune responses.

Trials in humans demonstrate that orange juice reduces inflammation, while its effects on innate and acquired immunity require further exploration in well-designed trials in appropriate population sub-groups, such as older people.

Figure 4 Summary of the effects of orange juice bioactives on different aspects of inflammation and immunity. Vitamin C and folate support barrier function, T cell mediated immunity and B cell mediated immunity.

Vitamin C, folate, hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin, and narirutin and naringin and their aglycone naringenin all reduce inflammation. The first draft of the article was prepared by PC.

EM provided comment. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The University of Southampton received funds from a consortium of orange producers, juice manufacturers and packaging companies based in Europe and Brazil under the umbrella of the European Fruit Juice Association AIJN.

The funders had no influence on the content of the article nor on the decision of where to publish. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; COVID, coronavirus disease discovered in ; CRP, C-reactive protein; FR4, folate receptor 4; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IFN, interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; MAMP, microbe-associated molecular pattern; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; SARS-CoV-2, systemic acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2; TLR, toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule.

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Skip to main content. Abstract Citrus aurantium , commonly referred to as sour orange or bitter orange, holds significant importance both in biological and economic terms. Keywords Citrus aurantium Bitter orange Phytochemicals Non-pharmacological uses Economic relevance.

Abbreviations ALT: Alanine transminase AMPKα: Activated protein kinase alpha AMPKα: AMP-activated protein kinase alpha AST: Aspartate aminotransferase CAVAPs: Crude polysaccharides of C.

aurantium L. Amara Engls DPPH: 2,2-Diphenylpicrylhydrazyl ERK: Extracellular signal- regulated kinase EtOAc: Ethyl acetate FAS: Fatty acid synthase FDA: Food and Drug Administration FRAP: Ferric reducing antioxidant power GGT: Gamma-glutamyl transferase GSK3β: Glycogen Synthase Kinase 3 Beta IL-1β: Interleukin-1β IL Interleukin 6 iNOS: Inducible nitric oxide synthase JNK: c-Jun N-terminal kinase MAPK: Mitogen-activated protein kinase MTD: Maximum tolerated dose NAFLD: Non-alcohol fatty liver disease NASH: Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis NF-kB: Nuclear factor kappa B NOAEL: No-observed-adverse-effect-level NOEL: No-observed-effect-level Nrf2: Nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 ORAC: Oxygen radical absorbance capacity PGC-1α: PPARγ co-activator 1α PTFC: Pure total flavonoids from citrus SCD1: Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 TAC: Total antioxidant capacity TBARS: Thiobarbituric acid reactive substances TNF- α: Tumor necrosis factor α UCP1: Uncoupling protein-1 WADA: World Anti-Doping Agency.

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Nigerian J of Biochem and Mol Bio 32 2 — Google Scholar Yakubu MT, Ogunro BO, Ademola RA, Awakan JO, Oyewo EB, Muhammad NO, Ajiboye TO Fadogia agrestis Schweinf. It is also important to note that some studies of micronutrient mixtures that include folate do not show improvements in immune outcomes , Nevertheless, it seems clear from the literature that an adequate folate intake and status is required to support the human immune system.

Hesperetin is the aglycone of hesperidin Figure 3. The anti-inflammatory effects of hesperetin and hesperidin have been examined in several cell culture studies [reviewed by Chanet et al. Hesperetin decreased production of TNF-α by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages in a concentration dependent manner , ; IL-6 production was not affected Hesperitin did not affect expression of the inhibitory subunit of NFκB or inducible nitric oxide synthase in these cells following lipopolysaccharide stimulation and only modestly affected nitric oxide production Increased adhesion of monocytes to endothelial cells and expression of vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 in response to TNF-α treatment were reduced by pretreatment with hesperetin Both hesperetin and hesperidin deceased expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells , and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells , Hesperidin also reduced ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations , an effect associated with reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK.

Hesperitin decreased IL-1β-induced MMP-3 and IL-6 production by cultured human synovial cells, which was linked to reduced activation of c-Jun N-terminal kinase Feeding hesperidin to mice for 6 weeks prior to undergoing irradiation resulted in lower concentrations of serum IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α compared to the control irradiated group This study suggests that hesperidin may enhance immunocompetence and decrease irradiation-induced inflammation in mice.

In a placebo controlled human trial with a crossover design conducted in 24 men and women aged 21 to 65 years with metabolic syndrome, hesperidin mg daily for 3 weeks resulted in significantly lowered plasma concentrations of CRP, serum amyloid A and sE-selectin In another human study, mg hesperidin daily for 4 weeks modified the gene expression profile of white blood cells 52 ; hesperidin intake modulated the expression of 1, genes many of which are involved in chemotaxis, adhesion, and cell infiltration.

Naringenin is the aglycone of naringin and narirutin Figure 3. The anti-inflammatory effects of naringenin have been examined in several cell culture and animal feeding studies [reviewed by Chanet et al.

In cell culture experiments, naringenin has been shown to decrease expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and to decrease production of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and prostaglandin E 2 by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages , Naringenin also reduced expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 and decreased production of prostaglandin E2 and expression of mRNA for TNF-α, IL-1β and monocyte chemoattractant peptide 1 by BV2 microglial cells in culture Naringenin also decreased expression of the adhesion molecule VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells and decreased monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells Such effects appear to relate to deceased activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB , , and of MAPKs Inclusion of naringenin in the diet of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet reduced expression of VCAM-1 and monocyte chemoattractant peptide 1 in the aortic arch Naringin has also been studied in vitro and in animal feeding studies.

Naringin deceased expression of the VCAM-1 in TNF-stimulated endothelial cells Naringin also reduced ICAM-1 expression on endothelial cells cultured in high glucose concentrations , an effect associated with reduced phosphorylation of the p38 MAPK. Inclusion of naringin in the diet of rabbits fed a high cholesterol diet reduced expression of VCAM-1 and MCP-1 in the aortic arch and reduced expression of ICAM-1 on endothelial cells Inclusion of naringin in the diet of mice fed a high cholesterol diet reduced blood levels of sICAM-1 and sE-selectin Dietary naringin lowered serum TNF-α concentration and increased serum adiponectin in mice ref a high fat diet Dietary naringin dose-dependently decreased serum concentrations of TNF-α, IL-6 and CRP and increased adiponectin concentration in diabetic rats fed a high fat diet compared with diabetic control rats In this same study, naringen increased liver and kidney expression of the anti-inflammatory transcription factor peroxisome proliferator activated receptor-γ and of heat shock protein and and decreased liver, kidney, and pancreas expression of NFκB Narirutin and naringin both decreased nitric oxide production by lipopolysaccharide-stimulated macrophages and decreased CRP release from incubated rat aortic vascular ring These data suggest that naringenin and its glycosides naringin and narirutin may have similar anti-inflammatory effects.

Beyond effects supporting immune function and controlling inflammation, bioactives present in citrus fruit juices may have direct anti-viral effects; these have been highlighted in the context of infection with systemic acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus SARS-CoV -2 and the disease that this virus causes, coronavirus disease discovered in COVID Using in silico modelling it was identified that hesperidin can bind with ACE2 and in doing so may make the ACE2-SARS-CoV-2 spike protein structure unstable — Through this action it is proposed that hesperidin could block SARS-CoV-2 from entering host cells and so could prevent the infection.

Hesperidin has also been shown to prevent replication of several viruses including the influenza virus acting through activation of immune-supporting MAPK pathways and in mice it prevented the spread of influenza virus Both hesperidin and hesperetin are able to inhibit key proteases involved in coronavirus replication , As reviewed by Tutunchi naringenin exerts similar actions suggesting it too could inhibit viral entry into host cells and subsequent viral replication.

It includes barrier functions and capabilities for recognition and elimination of pathogens and for immunologic memory.

One component of the immune response is inflammation which is designed to create a hostile environment to pathogens. Generation of oxidative stress is part of the inflammatory response and, in turn, oxidative stress can induce inflammation. Hence, an immune response which is appropriate to the challenge and involves controlled inflammation that is self-resolving is optimal.

Limitation of oxidative stress is one means of controlling inflammation, hence, antioxidants are often also anti-inflammatory. Nutrition is one of many determinants of the immune response 1 , 12 — 16 including the inflammatory component 4 — 6. Micronutrients vitamins and minerals are especially important for supporting normal immune response 1 , 12 — 16 and plant polyphenols have also emerged as having important roles, not only in helping to control oxidative and inflammatory stress, but also in supporting the activities of the cellular aspects of innate and acquired immunity.

Vitamin C and folate both have roles in sustaining the integrity of immunological barriers including the skin and internal mucosal linings Figure 4 , while vitamin C is an antioxidant and helps to control inflammation Figure 4. As described earlier, both vitamin C and folate support the function of many types of immune cell including phagocytes, natural killer cells, T-cells, and B-cells Figure 4.

The Nutrient Reference Values for vitamin C and folate are 80 mg and μg respectively. Hesperidin is a glycoside of hesperetin and narirutin and naringin are glycosides of naringenin Figure 3. Hesperidin, hesperetin, naringenin, naringin and narirutin have all been demonstrated to have anti-inflammatory effects, mainly demonstrated in cell culture and some animal studies; all seem to act, at least in part, through inhibiting activation of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NFκB.

Human trials of hesperidin in people with metabolic syndrome or type-2 diabetes reported reductions in inflammatory markers, including CRP.

Hesperidin modified gene expression in white blood cells with significant overlap of the genes modified with those modified by orange juice Thus, citrus fruit juices contain a mix of components that control oxidative stress and inflammation, and support the immune system.

In the context of human trials, orange juice has been most widely explored, although specific trials on immunity are scarce. Orange juice was shown to limit the post-prandial inflammation induced by a high fat-high carbohydrate meal Consuming orange juice daily for a period of weeks reduced markers of inflammation, including CRP, as confirmed through a recent meta-analysis One human intervention trial with orange juice failed to find effects on markers of innate or acquired immunity 60 ; however this trial studied healthy middle aged men and it may be that groups vulnerable to declines in immune function, such as the elderly, may be a better option for this type of trial.

Despite the findings of the latter study, in general the effects of orange juice, especially with regard to inflammation, are consistent with those of its component bioactives.

A newly emerging topic, driven largely by the SARS-CoV-2 pandemic, is whether polyphenols from orange juice have direct anti-viral effects. Furthermore in vitro studies identify that hesperidin, hesperetin and naringenin can restrict viral replication acting through inhibition of key enzymes involved in this process — Whether these effects occur in infected humans at intakes and circulating concentrations of these bioactives consistent with normal fruit juice consumption is uncertain.

In this context a clinical trial of hesperidin in people newly infected with SARS-CoV-2 has been registered In summary, micronutrients and other bioactives present in citrus fruit juices have established plausible pathways for controlling oxidative stress and inflammation and for supporting innate and acquired immune responses.

Trials in humans demonstrate that orange juice reduces inflammation, while its effects on innate and acquired immunity require further exploration in well-designed trials in appropriate population sub-groups, such as older people.

Figure 4 Summary of the effects of orange juice bioactives on different aspects of inflammation and immunity. Vitamin C and folate support barrier function, T cell mediated immunity and B cell mediated immunity.

Vitamin C, folate, hesperidin and its aglycone hesperetin, and narirutin and naringin and their aglycone naringenin all reduce inflammation.

The first draft of the article was prepared by PC. EM provided comment. All authors contributed to the article and approved the submitted version. The University of Southampton received funds from a consortium of orange producers, juice manufacturers and packaging companies based in Europe and Brazil under the umbrella of the European Fruit Juice Association AIJN.

The funders had no influence on the content of the article nor on the decision of where to publish. The authors declare that the research was conducted in the absence of any commercial or financial relationships that could be construed as a potential conflict of interest.

ACE, angiotensin converting enzyme; COVID, coronavirus disease discovered in ; CRP, C-reactive protein; FR4, folate receptor 4; ICAM, intercellular adhesion molecule; IFN, interferon; Ig, immunoglobulin; IL, interleukin; MAMP, microbe-associated molecular pattern; MAPK, mitogen-activated protein kinase; MMP, matrix metalloproteinase; NFκB, nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; SARS-CoV-2, systemic acute respiratory distress syndrome coronavirus 2; TLR, toll-like receptor; TNF, tumour necrosis factor; VCAM, vascular cell adhesion molecule.

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Eating Citrus Aurantium Citrus aurantium for immune function provides imune benefit. It's functio just the fruit that's loaded Nutrition for hockey players vitamin Workout recovery formula, the auranitum is too, as well as vitamin A, enzymes, fiber, immnue pectin. Vitamin Immun is a fantastic immune system booster that can help fight the symptoms of cold and flu. Citrus Aurantium is considered as a boon for face and skin care as it cures blackheads, dead cells, acne, pores, blemishes, dark circles, dry skinand brightens your face. It can also be applied with milk or curd for extra glow or for removing tan. Also rub your nails with its peel for shine. a College of Food aurantiuk Bioengineering, Enhanced germ resistance China University of Technology, Guangzhou, China E-mail: jgjiang scut. b The Second Affiliated Hospital, Immuen University functiin Citrus aurantium for immune function Medicine, GuangzhouChina Workout recovery formula zhuwei The crude polysaccharides of Citrus aurantium L. amara Engl CAVAPs were extracted and their bioactivities including DPPH radical scavenging activity, cytotoxicity to human breast cancer cells, MCF-7, as well as lung cancer cells, HCC, and their immune-enhancement activity were evaluated. Results showed that CAVAPs exhibited better immunoenhancement activity compared to the DPPH radical scavenging and anticancer activities. Subsequently, the immune enhancement activity of CAVAPs on RAW Citrus aurantium for immune function

Author: Akinor

5 thoughts on “Citrus aurantium for immune function

  1. Absolut ist mit Ihnen einverstanden. Mir scheint es die gute Idee. Ich bin mit Ihnen einverstanden.

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