Category: Diet

Hypertension and salt intake

Hypertension and salt intake

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Hypertension and salt intake -

For example, sea salt, rock salt, pink Himalayan salt, garlic salt and natural salt. Because of this, many people believe that these forms of salt must be better for them and are fine to use.

Unfortunately, salt is salt. They all contain the same amount of sodium so they all have the same effect on your blood pressure and your body. There are low-sodium alternatives to salt which you can buy to season your food.

These give food the same salty flavor but contain much less sodium. These products contain potassium instead of sodium so they could help you to lower your blood pressure if you find it too hard to cook without adding salt. These products include LoSalt , and there are other brands available.

If you have kidney problems or diabetes, check with your doctor or nurse before using the products as they might not be suitable for you.

Effervescent fizzy and soluble tablets and powders that you add to water contain sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate to make them fizz. For example, vitamin C supplements like Berocca, and soluble painkillers such as aspirin and Alka Seltzer.

The amount of sodium in these products can be equivalent to 1g of salt. This can really add to your daily salt intake so try to avoid these and use tablets instead. Click to print page. Your Blood Pressure Understanding your blood pressure What is high blood pressure?

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Salt and your blood pressure. Eating too much salt is the single biggest cause of high blood pressure. The more salt you eat, the higher your blood pressure will be.

How does salt raise your blood pressure? Salt and your kidneys Your kidneys play an important role in removing fluid and waste products from your body and in controlling your blood pressure.

How much salt is too much? How to eat less salt By learning some simple food swaps, understanding food labels and adding different flavours while cooking, you can slash your salt intake and still eat delicious food.

Tips for eating less salt These ideas will help you get started. Try adding different flavours and allow a little time for your taste buds to adjust. Avoid very salty flavourings. Ready-made sauces, soy sauce, stock cubes and gravy granules can all be very salty, look out for low salt options or try some new flavourings.

Get extra flavour into your recipes. Add herbs, spices and seasonings like chilli, pepper, ginger, lemon or lime juice. Taste food before you add salt. Sometimes people add salt out of habit, remember to taste your meals first.

Take the salt shaker off the table. So you're less likely to be tempted. Be careful of condiments. Try a salt alternative. If you really can't do without a salty favour, try using a small amount of a low-sodium salt substitute. Make your own marinades.

Marinating meat or fish in lemon or lime, or with yogurt and spices, avoids the need to add salt for flavour. How to Reduce Sodium Intake. Sodium, Potassium and Health.

Health Professional Resources. Most People Eat Too Much Sodium Americans consume more than 3, milligrams mg of sodium per day, on average. Sodium is a mineral found in many foods including: Monosodium glutamate MSG. Sodium bicarbonate baking soda. Sodium nitrate a preservative. View Larger.

Download Image [JPG]. Last Reviewed: June 6, Source: National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion , Division for Heart Disease and Stroke Prevention.

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Sallt ». December 5, Half of intaoe Americans have high blood Hyperrtension, or hypertension. Hypertension and salt intake intqke is considered high when systolic readings the Hypertension and salt intake number, the pressure when blood is pumped out of the heart are consistently over mm Hg or diastolic readings the bottom number, between heartbeats when the heart is filling with blood are 80 mm Hg or higher. Although sodium is crucial to the human body, too much contributes to high blood pressure. The sensitivity of blood pressure to sodium, however, varies from person to person. Also, most studies of low-sodium diets have excluded people taking blood pressure-lowering medications.

The association between sodium jntake Hypertension and salt intake hypertension intke well known, Hypertensin high sodium intake sapt negatively affect control of yHpertension.

High Hypertension and salt intake content is Hypertenslon in pickles, salty fish, carbonated ontake, and processed and canned food. Salt restriction is believed Hypertension and salt intake be a cost-effective measure to Hyprtension population morbidity and Hypedtension.

Salt, in Hypertensikn to Hypertfnsion, are known to be the notorious Hypertension and salt intake killers. While the cardiovascular effect of high blood Hypertensoin has been well established over the years, Hyperhension risk of high salt intake on cardiovascular Hypertension and salt intake and mortality is still debated.

The relationship between salt intake and inyake cardiovascular prognosis is not a consistent linear relationship, but rather a J-shaped curve [1]. This explains why people on significantly high Hypertension and salt intake those on significantly low Hyprrtension intake experience adverse cardiovascular events.

The mechanisms by which high salt intake andd the blood pressure are through water retention, vascular remodelling, and endothelial dysfunction [1]. On the other hand, the mechanisms linking low salt intake and high mortality are not yet well understood, although it may involve activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAAS and the sympathetic nervous systems as well Antioxidant properties of dark chocolate an increase in insulin resistance [1].

Intae consumption varies in different countries across the world, with the highest levels found in Northern China Hypertenxion and Japan where intak daily Hypertension and salt intake intake exceeds 10 g and the lowest sxlt found Hypertsnsion an isolated tribe Yanomami Indians inhabiting the tropical equatorial rainforest of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela HbAc goals as Hypertensiom as 0.

Globally, the usual sodium intake is between 3. Since the 12th century, West and Southern African countries Vegetarian athlete diet been mining salt and using it to trade with North Africa as Hypertensin as with Europe.

In hot climates, Hypertensionn tend to consume more dietary salt Lifestyle changes for managing hypertension in cold climates, probably as a result of Vitamin K benefits increased loss of sodium through Hypettension sweating in Herbal extract for inflammation temperatures.

Hypergension African diet inatke a high Hypertensiob content which is maybe one of the reasons why hypertension is ssalt prevalent on the continent [6]. Hypeetension, in European countries, the daily dietary salt intake among salh adults ranges Organic mood regulator formula 7 to 13 g, which far exceeds the recommended daily dose of sodium salts [5].

In many Hypeftension countries, the high dietary salt content comes intak processed food while Hyprrtension African countries, it comes mostly inttake bread, salted fish, salt added during cooking, and Hypertrnsion and spicing foods adn.

These types of food are called amd dense, nutrient poor EDNP foods [3]. The awareness and the attitude Hypfrtension salt restriction was evaluated in a study by Menyanu et al Hypertensio who surveyed sapt from Walt and South Africa. They discovered ealt one third of respondents did not know that a high salt intake inatke cause cardiovascular problems, nad may explain why no actions were taken to reduce their dietary salt Hypertenaion.

Authors also reported that high salt consumption was mainly observed in the younger population dalt in males. They also noted that Hypretension alcohol consumption was associated with a lower desire for salt intake [6].

Another study in Austria found that most salt intake was related to table salt, cereals, meat inta,e dairy products. They Nutrition observed that salt intake intaks higher in Hyprtension and in obese subjects [7]. Data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey NHANES indicated that Americans consume on average 3.

The Hypertensuon sodium and salt are not synonymous; salt which is commonly Hypertensioh table salt is a chemical compound consisting of sodium and chloride.

People often Hypedtension these Hypertension and salt intake words interchangeably, yet it is important Fine dining experience know the difference because the anc daily doses of sodium and of salt are not the same.

There are many other sodium-containing food andd that are used in food production, mainly in processed Hypertensioh canned intakke, like monosodium glutamate MSG Essential fatty acid supplements, sodium bicarbonate baking soda and sodium benzoate.

Salt is an important constituent Plant-Based Weight Loss Aid our daily foods. It Hypertensioon bland food tasty, and it is used as a preservative intaoe different types zalt processed and canned foods.

Processed food includes all foods Hyperyension undergo any changes to their natural state like bread, cheese Hjpertension other dairy and meat products [7]. Some foods anr a high salt content, yet do not taste intakee, e.

Accordingly, taste alone cannot ihtake used to determine the level of salt content in food. It is important to know how to read the nutrition fact labels inntake identify Hypertensioj content in packaged food. The Hyperension fact label is usually printed on the back of the food packaging and it lists the number of calories as well as the different constituents in the product.

It is crucial to understand that the nutrition information list is usually based on a certain amount of food one serving or gnot necessarily the whole amount contained in the package.

People who consume high salt-containing foods tend to be more obese than people who consume less salt in their diet. It was found that a high dietary salt intake is somehow related to increased weight gain, partly because of the high energy and fat content of salty food, and partly because salty food tastes better and this increases the desire to eat larger quantities of food [7].

Sodium is the main cation positively charged ion in the extracellular fluid while chloride is the main anion negatively charged ion. Sodium is important for many cellular functions and together with chloride, they are responsible for the osmolarity of the extracellular fluid. In addition, sodium is essential for the excitation of nerve and muscle cells, acid-base balance and the secretion of some digestive enzymes.

A low-sodium diet can activate the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system RAASwhich consequently leads to salt retention and restoration of fluid balance [5]. Excessive intake of sodium defined by the World Health Organization [WHO] as more than 2 g of sodium or more than 5 g of sodium chloride per day [3] is directly linked to high blood pressure and it was found that the higher the daily salt intake, the higher the systolic blood pressure [1].

In addition, high salt intake was found to blunt the physiologic nocturnal blood pressure dipping and to increase the daytime heart rate in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [10].

In salt-sensitive individuals, the physiologic pressure-natriuresis mechanism is impaired and the kidney becomes unable to excrete a sufficient amount of sodium in response to a high sodium intake [1].

Salt sensitivity is more prevalent in elderly people, females, obese subjects, and patients with chronic kidney disease [5]. Ethnic-specific salt sensitivity was also recognised, as salt sensitivity is more common in people of African descent and people from East Asian regions [17].

The mechanisms behind salt sensitivity are multiple. They include: the retention of sodium caused by abnormal renal excretory response to high urinary sodium, blunted suppression of RAAS, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, insulin resistance, genetic polymorphism, and inflammatory processes [1, 5].

Despite the clear association between salt sensitivity and pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension, physicians cannot not use this fact in everyday clinical practice, simply because of the lack of a practical diagnostic test for salt sensitivity [16].

It is difficult for individual patients to express their daily salt intake. Studies which measured hour urinary sodium excretion and then related these findings to the self-reported salt intake of the individual patients found that there was an underestimation in self-reported sodium consumption due to the difficulty of quantifying salt content hidden in processed foods.

It has been shown that salt restriction can lower blood pressure, where a reduction of about 1. There was a more pronounced effect 5.

Many trials suggest that reducing salt intake to moderate amounts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events, yet no definitive evidence has been provided by prospective randomised controlled trials about the optimal sodium intake to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality [2].

Generally, salt reduction to moderate amounts daily sodium 2. It is worth mentioning that non-compliance to salt restriction is considered one of the most important causes of difficult-to-control and resistant hypertension. A recent metanalysis showed that a calcium channel blocker combined with a hydrochlorothiazide were the most effective antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals [19].

Prospective cohort studies reported that reducing dietary sodium intake below 2 g of sodium per day could reduce blood pressure but was associated with an increased risk of adverse events all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both normotensive and in hypertensive people, suggesting a J-shaped curve phenomenon [2, 20].

On the contrary, epidemiologic studies did not show any adverse effects of low salt in diet. Many studies have shown the direct relationship between high sodium and hypertension and the inverse relationship between high potassium and hypertension [11]. It has also been repeatedly shown that a reduction in sodium salt and an increase in potassium salt consumption can reduce blood pressure, improve general physical health, and reduce salt sensitivity [21], which is why it is advisable to replace sodium salts with potassium salts.

Foods rich in potassium include dried fruits raisins, apricotslentils, beans, potatoes, spinach, broccoli, avocados and bananas.

The International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines recommend reducing the quantity of salt added when cooking and at the table, and to avoid or limit the consumption of high salt containing foods, such as fast foods, soy sauce and processed food including breads and cereals.

They also recommend population-based efforts to reduce salt intake and encourage consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits [17]. A reduction in salt consumption should be a public health priority that requires collaborative efforts between governments, food manufacturers and the general population [2].

To achieve this target, they recommend introducing regulations for food manufacturers to produce healthier and lower salt containing food and they also recommend increasing consumer awareness about the risks of high salt consumption and the healthier alternatives [3].

High salt intake is deleterious to the cardiovascular system both in normo- as well as in hypertensive individuals. Many food products contain salt, and one should be aware of the salt content in their diet to avoid high consumption. The association between high salt intake and hypertension is well established and all guidelines recommend reducing dietary salt as one of the proven measures to reduce high blood pressure.

It is recommended to limit salt consumption to moderate amounts as too little salt in a diet may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. Population-based campaigns should increase the public awareness about the risks of high dietary salt and about the available measures to replace an unhealthy diet with a healthier one.

Assistant Professor Ghada Youssef, Cardiology Department, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Our mission: To reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease.

Help centre Contact us. All rights reserved. Did you know that your browser is out of date? To get the best experience using our website we recommend that you upgrade to a newer version.

Learn more. Show navigation Hide navigation. Sub menu. e-Journal of Cardiology Practice. Salt and hypertension: current views Vol. Ghada Sayed Youssef.

Topic s : Hypertension. Introduction Salt, in addition to sugar, are known to be the notorious white killers. The habit of high salt intake Salt consumption varies in different countries across the world, with the highest levels found in Northern China [4] and Japan where the daily salt intake exceeds 10 g and the lowest level found in an isolated tribe Yanomami Indians inhabiting the tropical equatorial rainforest of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela consuming as low as 0.

High salt-containing foods The words sodium and salt are not synonymous; salt which is commonly called table salt is a chemical compound consisting of sodium and chloride.

Table 1. Examples of some high salt-containing foods. Types of food Examples Meat Smoked, salted, or canned, bacon, frankfurters, sausage Fish Smoked, salted, or canned, sardines Poultry Smoked, salted, or canned Dairy Products Regular and processed cheese, cottage cheese Vegetables Regular canned vegetables and vegetable juices, olives, pickles Bakery Bread, biscuit, pancake, waffle mixes, pizza Sauces Tomato sauces, soy sauce, seasoning salt, and other sauces and marinades Pasta Processed mixes of pasta, commercially prepared pasta, cup of noodles Others Rice, salted nuts, carbonated beverages Salt and Hypertension Sodium is the main cation positively charged ion in the extracellular fluid while chloride is the main anion negatively charged ion.

There are many mechanisms that link high salt intake and hypertension: Water retention - this was explained by the classic concept of Guyton [12], who demonstrated that high salt intake leads to more water retention, which leads to an expansion in the circulating volumes, an increase in cardiac output, and a rise in kidney perfusion pressure.

When the kidney perfusion pressure is increased, the glomerular filtration rate increases and sodium excretion increases aiming to restore the fluid balance in the body. This physiological response to a high salt intake is called the pressure-natriuresis mechanism, Figure 1.

When the sodium excretory ability of the kidney is compromised, hypertension may develop [1]. Yet, some other studies showed that the circulating volumes and the cardiac output were similar among salt-sensitive and salt-insensitive individuals. They explained these findings by the non-osmotic storage of sodium, meaning that sodium may be stored in the body without water retention [13].

Increase in systemic peripheral resistance as high sodium triggers remodelling in small resistant arteries - The effect of sodium on the vascular remodelling of small resistant arteries can occur both in normotensive as well as in hypertensive individuals.

It was found that the risk of developing hypertension was higher among salt-sensitive normotensive individuals when compared to salt-insensitive ones [1]. Endothelial dysfunction - it was found that high salt intake can cause marked reduction in the endothelial nitric oxide NO which is responsible for endothelium-dependent vascular dilatation.

: Hypertension and salt intake

Sodium, Potassium and Health Previous studies that examine only sodium intake have shown inconsistent results in terms of reduction in blood pressure and cardiovascular events. Myth: I use kosher or sea salt when I cook instead of regular table salt. Moore and her team took data from 2, men and women aged between 30 and 64 years, who were part of the Framingham Offspring Study — an offshoot of the Framingham Heart Study. Are there symptoms for high blood pressure? It includes fat-free or low-fat dairy products, fish, poultry, beans and nuts. The diet provided an average of mg of sodium per day.
Lower sodium could reduce blood pressure in most people Click to Hypertension and salt intake page. Another Hypertensioh in Hypertension and salt intake found that Hyypertension salt intake Performance enhancing nutrition related to table salt, cereals, anr and dairy products. It is recommended to limit salt consumption to moderate amounts as too little salt in a diet may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. The standard DASH diet limits salt to 2, milligrams mg a day. When reading labels for sodium, always check the serving size. How does salt raise your blood pressure? Contact Us.
Latest news Eating Hypertenson Hypertension and salt intake diet Hypertebsion in vegetables, fruits, and Holistic energy enhancers dairy foods could reduce your blood pressure by Hypertension and salt intake to 14 Hypertensio. WHY Intakee I REDUCE SODIUM IN MY DIET? Foods to choose — The following are examples of foods that may be lower in sodium. of wine, or 1. These articles are thorough, long, and complex, and they contain multiple references to the research on which they are based. The DASH diet is a healthy-eating plan designed to help prevent or treat high blood pressure, also called hypertension. Media Requests.
Sodium Intake and Health

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Blood Pressure UK BPUK Your Blood Pressure How to lower your blood pressure Healthy eating Salt and your blood pressure. Salt and your blood pressure. Eating too much salt is the single biggest cause of high blood pressure. The more salt you eat, the higher your blood pressure will be.

How does salt raise your blood pressure? Salt and your kidneys Your kidneys play an important role in removing fluid and waste products from your body and in controlling your blood pressure. How much salt is too much? How to eat less salt By learning some simple food swaps, understanding food labels and adding different flavours while cooking, you can slash your salt intake and still eat delicious food.

Tips for eating less salt These ideas will help you get started. Try adding different flavours and allow a little time for your taste buds to adjust.

Avoid very salty flavourings. Ready-made sauces, soy sauce, stock cubes and gravy granules can all be very salty, look out for low salt options or try some new flavourings. Get extra flavour into your recipes. Add herbs, spices and seasonings like chilli, pepper, ginger, lemon or lime juice.

Taste food before you add salt. Sometimes people add salt out of habit, remember to taste your meals first. Take the salt shaker off the table. So you're less likely to be tempted.

Be careful of condiments. Try a salt alternative. If you really can't do without a salty favour, try using a small amount of a low-sodium salt substitute.

Make your own marinades. Marinating meat or fish in lemon or lime, or with yogurt and spices, avoids the need to add salt for flavour. Cut down on high salt foods.

Cooking sauces, table sauces such as ketchup and mustard, cheese, bacon, olives and pickles can contain a lot of salt. Check the labels.

Salt contents vary greatly. Choose low salt bread and breakfast cereals. They can contain a lot of salt and add a lot to our diet — as we eat so much of them. Check the labels to compare brands. Avoid smoked and processed meats and These contain a lot of salt, so limit how much you eat.

Call ahead when you eat out. If you are eating out, ask if your meal can be made with less salt. Use the FoodSwitch app.

It compares the salt content of similar products so you can find the healthier options easily. After a few weeks your taste buds will adjust and you will start to enjoy food with less salt — like switching to tea without sugar.

Which foods are high in salt? Certain foods are particularly high in salt. Try to avoid them or find a lower-salt version: tomato ketchup tinned, packet and chiller cabinet soups beef, chicken and vegetable stock cubes gravy granules soy sauce dried fish mustard pickles curry powders ready-made sandwiches microwave and frozen ready meals breaded chicken products sausages bacon ham You can also download the free FoodSwitch app which does the hard work for you.

Understanding food labels Most of the salt we eat is hidden in the foods we buy, and similar products can vary dramatically in how much salt they contain.

Checking labels for salt Follow these guidelines to choose lower salt foods. Low - 0. Medium - 0. Follow these guidelines to choose lower sodium and salt foods. Low — 0. Medium — 0. Look for traffic lights Many food products have colored labels on the front of their packets.

Cooking with less salt There are lots of flavours you can add to your meals to delight your taste buds, without raising your blood pressure.

Ingredients you can use to add flavor include: fresh, frozen or dried herbs onions garlic shallots chillies ginger cinnamon cumin lemon juice pepper vinegar red or white wine, cider or beer ready-mixed spices — but check the label to make sure that they only contain low levels of salt or sodium Have a look at our low salt recipes for ideas.

Be careful of salt that is marketed as healthy Many table salt products market themselves as healthy options, claiming to be natural or from a healthy-sounding source. Low-sodium salt alternatives to salt There are low-sodium alternatives to salt which you can buy to season your food.

Sodium in medications, supplements and pick-me-ups Effervescent fizzy and soluble tablets and powders that you add to water contain sodium carbonate or sodium bicarbonate to make them fizz. Excessive intake of sodium defined by the World Health Organization [WHO] as more than 2 g of sodium or more than 5 g of sodium chloride per day [3] is directly linked to high blood pressure and it was found that the higher the daily salt intake, the higher the systolic blood pressure [1].

In addition, high salt intake was found to blunt the physiologic nocturnal blood pressure dipping and to increase the daytime heart rate in ambulatory blood pressure monitoring [10]. In salt-sensitive individuals, the physiologic pressure-natriuresis mechanism is impaired and the kidney becomes unable to excrete a sufficient amount of sodium in response to a high sodium intake [1].

Salt sensitivity is more prevalent in elderly people, females, obese subjects, and patients with chronic kidney disease [5]. Ethnic-specific salt sensitivity was also recognised, as salt sensitivity is more common in people of African descent and people from East Asian regions [17].

The mechanisms behind salt sensitivity are multiple. They include: the retention of sodium caused by abnormal renal excretory response to high urinary sodium, blunted suppression of RAAS, stimulation of the sympathetic nervous system, insulin resistance, genetic polymorphism, and inflammatory processes [1, 5].

Despite the clear association between salt sensitivity and pathophysiological mechanisms of hypertension, physicians cannot not use this fact in everyday clinical practice, simply because of the lack of a practical diagnostic test for salt sensitivity [16]. It is difficult for individual patients to express their daily salt intake.

Studies which measured hour urinary sodium excretion and then related these findings to the self-reported salt intake of the individual patients found that there was an underestimation in self-reported sodium consumption due to the difficulty of quantifying salt content hidden in processed foods.

It has been shown that salt restriction can lower blood pressure, where a reduction of about 1. There was a more pronounced effect 5. Many trials suggest that reducing salt intake to moderate amounts is associated with a lower risk of cardiovascular events, yet no definitive evidence has been provided by prospective randomised controlled trials about the optimal sodium intake to reduce cardiovascular events and mortality [2].

Generally, salt reduction to moderate amounts daily sodium 2. It is worth mentioning that non-compliance to salt restriction is considered one of the most important causes of difficult-to-control and resistant hypertension. A recent metanalysis showed that a calcium channel blocker combined with a hydrochlorothiazide were the most effective antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals [19].

Prospective cohort studies reported that reducing dietary sodium intake below 2 g of sodium per day could reduce blood pressure but was associated with an increased risk of adverse events all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in both normotensive and in hypertensive people, suggesting a J-shaped curve phenomenon [2, 20].

On the contrary, epidemiologic studies did not show any adverse effects of low salt in diet. Many studies have shown the direct relationship between high sodium and hypertension and the inverse relationship between high potassium and hypertension [11].

It has also been repeatedly shown that a reduction in sodium salt and an increase in potassium salt consumption can reduce blood pressure, improve general physical health, and reduce salt sensitivity [21], which is why it is advisable to replace sodium salts with potassium salts.

Foods rich in potassium include dried fruits raisins, apricots , lentils, beans, potatoes, spinach, broccoli, avocados and bananas. The International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines recommend reducing the quantity of salt added when cooking and at the table, and to avoid or limit the consumption of high salt containing foods, such as fast foods, soy sauce and processed food including breads and cereals.

They also recommend population-based efforts to reduce salt intake and encourage consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits [17]. A reduction in salt consumption should be a public health priority that requires collaborative efforts between governments, food manufacturers and the general population [2].

To achieve this target, they recommend introducing regulations for food manufacturers to produce healthier and lower salt containing food and they also recommend increasing consumer awareness about the risks of high salt consumption and the healthier alternatives [3].

High salt intake is deleterious to the cardiovascular system both in normo- as well as in hypertensive individuals. Many food products contain salt, and one should be aware of the salt content in their diet to avoid high consumption.

The association between high salt intake and hypertension is well established and all guidelines recommend reducing dietary salt as one of the proven measures to reduce high blood pressure.

It is recommended to limit salt consumption to moderate amounts as too little salt in a diet may lead to adverse cardiovascular events.

Population-based campaigns should increase the public awareness about the risks of high dietary salt and about the available measures to replace an unhealthy diet with a healthier one. Assistant Professor Ghada Youssef, Cardiology Department, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt.

Our mission: To reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Help centre Contact us. All rights reserved. Did you know that your browser is out of date?

To get the best experience using our website we recommend that you upgrade to a newer version. Learn more. Show navigation Hide navigation. Sub menu. e-Journal of Cardiology Practice. Salt and hypertension: current views Vol. Ghada Sayed Youssef. Topic s : Hypertension. Introduction Salt, in addition to sugar, are known to be the notorious white killers.

The habit of high salt intake Salt consumption varies in different countries across the world, with the highest levels found in Northern China [4] and Japan where the daily salt intake exceeds 10 g and the lowest level found in an isolated tribe Yanomami Indians inhabiting the tropical equatorial rainforest of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela consuming as low as 0.

High salt-containing foods The words sodium and salt are not synonymous; salt which is commonly called table salt is a chemical compound consisting of sodium and chloride. Table 1. Examples of some high salt-containing foods. Types of food Examples Meat Smoked, salted, or canned, bacon, frankfurters, sausage Fish Smoked, salted, or canned, sardines Poultry Smoked, salted, or canned Dairy Products Regular and processed cheese, cottage cheese Vegetables Regular canned vegetables and vegetable juices, olives, pickles Bakery Bread, biscuit, pancake, waffle mixes, pizza Sauces Tomato sauces, soy sauce, seasoning salt, and other sauces and marinades Pasta Processed mixes of pasta, commercially prepared pasta, cup of noodles Others Rice, salted nuts, carbonated beverages Salt and Hypertension Sodium is the main cation positively charged ion in the extracellular fluid while chloride is the main anion negatively charged ion.

There are many mechanisms that link high salt intake and hypertension: Water retention - this was explained by the classic concept of Guyton [12], who demonstrated that high salt intake leads to more water retention, which leads to an expansion in the circulating volumes, an increase in cardiac output, and a rise in kidney perfusion pressure.

When the kidney perfusion pressure is increased, the glomerular filtration rate increases and sodium excretion increases aiming to restore the fluid balance in the body. This physiological response to a high salt intake is called the pressure-natriuresis mechanism, Figure 1.

When the sodium excretory ability of the kidney is compromised, hypertension may develop [1]. Yet, some other studies showed that the circulating volumes and the cardiac output were similar among salt-sensitive and salt-insensitive individuals.

They explained these findings by the non-osmotic storage of sodium, meaning that sodium may be stored in the body without water retention [13]. Increase in systemic peripheral resistance as high sodium triggers remodelling in small resistant arteries - The effect of sodium on the vascular remodelling of small resistant arteries can occur both in normotensive as well as in hypertensive individuals.

It was found that the risk of developing hypertension was higher among salt-sensitive normotensive individuals when compared to salt-insensitive ones [1].

Endothelial dysfunction - it was found that high salt intake can cause marked reduction in the endothelial nitric oxide NO which is responsible for endothelium-dependent vascular dilatation. Reduction of NO leads to not only elevation of blood pressure, but also to many blood pressure-independent cardiovascular complications [14].

Changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries - it was found that high salt intake could affect the properties of large elastic arteries leading to an increase in vascular stiffness [15].

Modulation in the autonomic neuronal supply and the sympathetic activity of the cardiovascular system [1]. Figure 1.

The pressure-natriuresis mechanism. Salt restriction and blood pressure reduction It has been shown that salt restriction can lower blood pressure, where a reduction of about 1. Salt and antihypertensive medications A recent metanalysis showed that a calcium channel blocker combined with a hydrochlorothiazide were the most effective antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals [19].

Low salt intake: is it really dangerous? Sodium salt versus potassium salt Many studies have shown the direct relationship between high sodium and hypertension and the inverse relationship between high potassium and hypertension [11].

Current recommendations in different guidelines The International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines recommend reducing the quantity of salt added when cooking and at the table, and to avoid or limit the consumption of high salt containing foods, such as fast foods, soy sauce and processed food including breads and cereals.

Plan of action A reduction in salt consumption should be a public health priority that requires collaborative efforts between governments, food manufacturers and the general population [2].

Conclusion High salt intake is deleterious to the cardiovascular system both in normo- as well as in hypertensive individuals. References Grillo A, Salvi L, Coruzzi P, Salvi P, Parati G. Sodium Intake and Hypertension.

J Hypertens. World Health Organization. Salt reduction Tan M, He FJ, Wang C, MacGregor GA. Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. J Am Heart Assoc. Rust P, Ekmekcioglu C. Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Menyanu E, Charlton KE, Ware LJ, Russell J, Biritwum R, Kowal P. Salt Use Behaviours of Ghanaians and South Africans: A Comparative Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices.

High blood pressure: Sodium may not be the culprit

Choosing low-sodium or low-salt products and not adding salt in cooking can help you limit your sodium intake. Here are a few more easy tips to get you started:. It also likely lowers the risk of stroke.

Eating more fruits and vegetables high in potassium can help. Be sure to check with your physician or registered dietitian. Read more from UC Davis Health: Ways to lower blood pressure naturally through your diet. Sodium has many names other than salt, so you should read the ingredient list.

When reading labels for sodium, always check the serving size. A low-sodium food will have mg or less per serving. Aim to avoid or limit foods with more than mg per serving.

A prepackaged meal should have no more than mg of sodium. If you have high blood pressure, or hypertension, you may want to consider participating in our blood pressure classes and programs.

Learn more about UC Davis Health's blood pressure classes. Subscribe to our blog and receive notifications of new stories by email. menu icon Menu. Good Food Is Good Medicine. Enter search words search icon Search × Enter search words Subscribe to Good Food Is Good Medicine Subscribe to our blog and receive notifications of new stories by email.

Please retry. Also, beware of other ingredients often used in cooking. These include baking soda, baking powder, soy sauce, Worcestershire sauce, barbecue sauce, and instant soup mixes.

Foods with visible salt crystals: Examples of these include salted nuts, potato chips, tortilla chips, salted popcorn, crackers, and pretzels. Frozen and packaged quick meals: This includes boxed mac and cheese, rice and noodle mixes, instant oatmeal, and instant cocoa mix. They also recommend population-based efforts to reduce salt intake and encourage consumption of fresh vegetables and fruits [17].

A reduction in salt consumption should be a public health priority that requires collaborative efforts between governments, food manufacturers and the general population [2].

To achieve this target, they recommend introducing regulations for food manufacturers to produce healthier and lower salt containing food and they also recommend increasing consumer awareness about the risks of high salt consumption and the healthier alternatives [3]. High salt intake is deleterious to the cardiovascular system both in normo- as well as in hypertensive individuals.

Many food products contain salt, and one should be aware of the salt content in their diet to avoid high consumption. The association between high salt intake and hypertension is well established and all guidelines recommend reducing dietary salt as one of the proven measures to reduce high blood pressure.

It is recommended to limit salt consumption to moderate amounts as too little salt in a diet may lead to adverse cardiovascular events. Population-based campaigns should increase the public awareness about the risks of high dietary salt and about the available measures to replace an unhealthy diet with a healthier one.

Assistant Professor Ghada Youssef, Cardiology Department, Kasr Al Ainy School of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo, Egypt. Our mission: To reduce the burden of cardiovascular disease. Help centre Contact us. All rights reserved. Did you know that your browser is out of date? To get the best experience using our website we recommend that you upgrade to a newer version.

Learn more. Show navigation Hide navigation. Sub menu. e-Journal of Cardiology Practice. Salt and hypertension: current views Vol. Ghada Sayed Youssef. Topic s : Hypertension. Introduction Salt, in addition to sugar, are known to be the notorious white killers. The habit of high salt intake Salt consumption varies in different countries across the world, with the highest levels found in Northern China [4] and Japan where the daily salt intake exceeds 10 g and the lowest level found in an isolated tribe Yanomami Indians inhabiting the tropical equatorial rainforest of northern Brazil and southern Venezuela consuming as low as 0.

High salt-containing foods The words sodium and salt are not synonymous; salt which is commonly called table salt is a chemical compound consisting of sodium and chloride.

Table 1. Examples of some high salt-containing foods. Types of food Examples Meat Smoked, salted, or canned, bacon, frankfurters, sausage Fish Smoked, salted, or canned, sardines Poultry Smoked, salted, or canned Dairy Products Regular and processed cheese, cottage cheese Vegetables Regular canned vegetables and vegetable juices, olives, pickles Bakery Bread, biscuit, pancake, waffle mixes, pizza Sauces Tomato sauces, soy sauce, seasoning salt, and other sauces and marinades Pasta Processed mixes of pasta, commercially prepared pasta, cup of noodles Others Rice, salted nuts, carbonated beverages Salt and Hypertension Sodium is the main cation positively charged ion in the extracellular fluid while chloride is the main anion negatively charged ion.

There are many mechanisms that link high salt intake and hypertension: Water retention - this was explained by the classic concept of Guyton [12], who demonstrated that high salt intake leads to more water retention, which leads to an expansion in the circulating volumes, an increase in cardiac output, and a rise in kidney perfusion pressure.

When the kidney perfusion pressure is increased, the glomerular filtration rate increases and sodium excretion increases aiming to restore the fluid balance in the body.

This physiological response to a high salt intake is called the pressure-natriuresis mechanism, Figure 1. When the sodium excretory ability of the kidney is compromised, hypertension may develop [1].

Yet, some other studies showed that the circulating volumes and the cardiac output were similar among salt-sensitive and salt-insensitive individuals.

They explained these findings by the non-osmotic storage of sodium, meaning that sodium may be stored in the body without water retention [13]. Increase in systemic peripheral resistance as high sodium triggers remodelling in small resistant arteries - The effect of sodium on the vascular remodelling of small resistant arteries can occur both in normotensive as well as in hypertensive individuals.

It was found that the risk of developing hypertension was higher among salt-sensitive normotensive individuals when compared to salt-insensitive ones [1].

Endothelial dysfunction - it was found that high salt intake can cause marked reduction in the endothelial nitric oxide NO which is responsible for endothelium-dependent vascular dilatation. Reduction of NO leads to not only elevation of blood pressure, but also to many blood pressure-independent cardiovascular complications [14].

Changes in the structure and function of large elastic arteries - it was found that high salt intake could affect the properties of large elastic arteries leading to an increase in vascular stiffness [15].

Modulation in the autonomic neuronal supply and the sympathetic activity of the cardiovascular system [1]. Figure 1. The pressure-natriuresis mechanism. Salt restriction and blood pressure reduction It has been shown that salt restriction can lower blood pressure, where a reduction of about 1.

Salt and antihypertensive medications A recent metanalysis showed that a calcium channel blocker combined with a hydrochlorothiazide were the most effective antihypertensive drugs in reducing blood pressure in salt-sensitive individuals [19]. Low salt intake: is it really dangerous?

Sodium salt versus potassium salt Many studies have shown the direct relationship between high sodium and hypertension and the inverse relationship between high potassium and hypertension [11]. Current recommendations in different guidelines The International Society of Hypertension Global Hypertension Practice Guidelines recommend reducing the quantity of salt added when cooking and at the table, and to avoid or limit the consumption of high salt containing foods, such as fast foods, soy sauce and processed food including breads and cereals.

Plan of action A reduction in salt consumption should be a public health priority that requires collaborative efforts between governments, food manufacturers and the general population [2]. Conclusion High salt intake is deleterious to the cardiovascular system both in normo- as well as in hypertensive individuals.

References Grillo A, Salvi L, Coruzzi P, Salvi P, Parati G. Sodium Intake and Hypertension. J Hypertens. World Health Organization. Salt reduction Tan M, He FJ, Wang C, MacGregor GA. Twenty-Four-Hour Urinary Sodium and Potassium Excretion in China: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

J Am Heart Assoc. Rust P, Ekmekcioglu C. Impact of Salt Intake on the Pathogenesis and Treatment of Hypertension. Advances in experimental medicine and biology. Menyanu E, Charlton KE, Ware LJ, Russell J, Biritwum R, Kowal P.

Salt Use Behaviours of Ghanaians and South Africans: A Comparative Study of Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices. Hasenegger V, Rust P, König J, Purtscher AE, Erler J, Ekmekcioglu C. Main Sources, Socio-Demographic and Anthropometric Correlates of Salt Intake in Austria.

US Department Of Agriculture. Nutrient intakes from food: mean amounts consumed per individual, by gender and age, what we eat in America. NHANES —, , [Available from: USDA Agricultural Reasearch Service. Patient Education: Guidelines for a low sodium diet.

Detecting sodium-sensitivity in hypertensive patients: information from hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring. Whelton PK, He J. Health effects of sodium and potassium in humans. Curr Opin Lipidol. Guyton AC. Blood pressure control--special role of the kidneys and body fluids.

Laffer CL, Scott RC 3rd, Titze JM, Luft FC, Elijovich F. Hemodynamics and Salt-and-Water Balance Link Sodium Storage and Vascular Dysfunction in Salt-Sensitive Subjects. Boegehold MA. The effect of high salt intake on endothelial function: reduced vascular nitric oxide in the absence of hypertension.

J Vasc Res. O'Donnell M, Mente A, Alderman MH, Brady AJB, Diaz R, Gupta R, López-Jaramillo P, Luft FC, Lüscher TF, Mancia G, Mann JFE, McCarron D, McKee M, Messerli FH, Moore LL, Narula J, Oparil S, Packer M, Prabhakaran D, Schutte A, Sliwa K, Staessen JA, Yancy C, Yusuf S.

Salt and cardiovascular disease: insufficient evidence to recommend low sodium intake. Eur Heart J. Balafa O, Kalaitzidis RG. Salt sensitivity and hypertension.

Salt has long been Muscle recovery for endurance athletes as xnd harbinger of hypertension. However, inatke research Hypertension and salt intake the condition has delved deeper, it is becoming clear that Hypertension and salt intake story is Hypertension and salt intake complex. Hypertensioh latest sakt in this arena goes Hypertensioj way Hypertension and salt intake absolving Hypertension and salt intake. Following a raft of large-scale studies showing that a high salt intake leads to high blood pressurethe Dietary Guidelines for Americans set the recommended sodium intake at 2, milligrams per day. However, a new batch of studies are bringing this guideline into question, and researchers are now asking whether the relationship between hypertension and salt is so clear cut. Researcher Lynn L. Moore, an associate professor of medicine at Boston University School of Medicine in Massachusetts, completed the study with her team.

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