Category: Diet

Recovery nutrition strategies

Recovery nutrition strategies

Recovefy During postexercise recovery, wtrategies Blood sugar crash and stress intake is nytrition to replenish endogenous substrate stores Hair growth for weak hair to facilitate muscle-damage repair and reconditioning. As a result of this, the Recogery and muscle atrophy were associated with the Recovery nutrition strategies of systemic inflammatory response and strategles defenses in stress conditions; dtrategies example, in the increase of glutathione synthesis, myeloperoxidase concentrations, significant changes glutamate-cysteine ligase enzyme and the rate of glutathione turnover [ 19 ]. Results The stages of a muscle injury are classified as destruction-inflammation, repair, and remodeling phase. Proc Nutr Soc [Internet]. Because of the above, the combination of carbohydrates and proteins immediately after exercise first 2 hours is an easy strategy for players of all levels. The prevalence of sports injuries is latent in any sport event, from amateur to large events such as World Championships and Olympic Games summer and winter seasons. Recovery nutrition strategies

Recovery nutrition strategies -

To optimize recovery, it is recommended that athletes consume For a pound athlete, this would be 80 — 95 grams of carbohydrates.

There are a variety of ways athletes can meet their recovery nutrition carbohydrate needs. Dietary sources of carbohydrates include:. By combining a variety of carbohydrate-rich foods in post-activity meals and snacks, athletes can easily meet their recovery nutrition needs.

When athletes exercise, they breakdown their muscles. Thus, including protein in recovery nutrition meals and snacks is important to support the repair and building-up of lean muscle mass. Following activity, it is recommended athletes aim to consume ~0.

In general, this calculates to be in the range of grams of protein, with larger athletes needing more protein than smaller athletes.

Athletes can easily meet their recovery nutrition protein needs with real food. As a point of reference, the list below provides the amount of protein in commonly consumed foods.

Athletes often asked if recovery nutrition is best accomplished through a post-workout protein shake or through real food. As with many aspects of nutrition, this depends on the individual. Some athletes do not have an appetite post-exercise and find eating a meal to be a challenge.

For these athletes, a post-workout shake may be a solution for meeting recovery nutrition needs. If an athlete is considering the use of a protein powder it is important to select a high-quality product.

Make sure to check out my blog, 5 Keys to Selecting the Best Protein Powder, for key considerations when purchasing protein powders.

Time may be another determining factor between a post-workout shake and a meal. Many high school and college athletes head straight to class after practice, thus there is not time to go to the cafeteria to eat a meal. For these athletes, drinking a recovery shake or eating a well-planned snack can provide needed nutrients and hold them over until the next meal.

More specifically, alcohol has recently been shown to reduce myofibrillar protein synthesis rates even if coingested with protein, resulting in an impairment of recovery and adaptation from exercise by suppressing skeletal muscle anabolic responses [ 75 ].

Moreover, alcohol consumed after a match can also exacerbate dehydration especially when consumed during the recovery period several hours after a match [ 76 ].

Thus it is prudent to educate players regarding the negative effects of alcohol on recovery when multiple matches are played within a short period of time. Recovery nutrition towards the end of a day during periods of fixture congestion as well as intensive training is often overlooked by athletes.

For instance, protein ingested before sleep has proven to be effectively digested and absorbed, leading to an increase in protein synthesis and improving whole-body protein balance during overnight recovery [ 49 ].

Ingesting a pre-sleep protein snack high in casein such as g of cottage cheese or alternatively, a formulated protein supplement containing 40 g of casein protein will likely prove beneficial for increasing the time in a net-positive anabolic state over the course of a day [ 77 ]. This is due to its slow release properties over a prolonged sleeping period.

The absence of this pre-sleep feed will not improve overnight protein balance; possibly compromising muscle protein synthesis rates over the 24 h period. A summary of the recovery nutrition guidelines have been summarised in Table 3. Fundamentally, macro and micro nutrients should come primarily from food sources in the diet; however, players may require a constituent, metabolite, concentrate or extract in isolation that is difficult to source in quantities required from food [ 78 ].

Moreover, elite players should be cautious with supplements and only take batch tested products that have been tested for banned substances.

Specific guidelines have yet to be developed with limited research available for the use of some supplements, especially in the context of recovery from elite soccer match-play during periods of fixture congestion. Nevertheless, supplement use during this short recovery phase has become common practice in soccer clubs across a range of ages.

Immediately after a match and several hours afterwards, feeding a team with nutritious food can be problematic and therefore certain supplements can be convenient to enhance recovery. A brief review of popular products is provided in this section with reference to their application for recovery.

Carbohydrate and protein supplements can be both useful and practical for players to enhance recovery during periods of fixture congestion.

During repeated soccer-specific actions phosphocreatine stores diminish significantly as a consequence of adenosine triphosphate regeneration through phosphocreatine hydrolysis in the initial seconds of supra-maximal activity [ 80 ]. To increase resting muscle phosphocreatine stores quickly, a creatine loading protocol can be used with the conventional strategy involving 4 × 5 g doses of creatine supplementation per day for 5—7 days proceeded by a maintenance dose of 3—5 g per day [ 81 ].

However, a lower daily dose of ~3 g per day for 28 days will result in a similar increase in phosphocreatine stores [ 81 ] to the loading protocol. It has been reported that muscle glycogen resynthesis can be enhanced following creatine loading [ 82 ].

Practically, creatine can be added to the post-match and post-training recovery drink and it may prove beneficial in optimising refuelling strategies especially during congested fixture schedules.

In agreement with data from the general population [ 83 ], empirical observations highlight that sleep deprivation is common on the night s prior to sporting competition; especially, if matches require prior international air travel. Interestingly, players who self-reported 7—9 h sleep on the night before testing outperformed their sleep-deprived counterparts i.

There is some evidence that large amounts of caffeine taken with carbohydrate can enhance glycogen resynthesis post-exercise [ 85 , 86 ]. Muscle biopsy data showed that although no differences were observed in glycogen resynthesis after 1 h post-exercise — Similarly, Taylor et al.

Although Taylor et al. Whilst the findings of Pedersen et al. Nonetheless, this strategy could be employed for matches that have early kick off times. When time is limited between games, dietary components that modulate the inflammatory process may prove beneficial in the acute recovery phase.

However, it is important to note that any form of antioxidant or anti-inflammatory supplement should be carefully dosed. Soccer-specific adaptations are triggered by the inflammatory and redox reactions occurring after a strenuous exercise stimulus.

Therefore, chronically high doses in their provision are likely to be detrimental to the long term training effect [ 87 ]. For example, large doses of vitamins C and E have proven to have detrimental effects to cellular adaptation [ 88 , 89 ]. Antioxidant- and polyphenol-rich foods such as cherry and pomegranate juice have been found to enhance recovery following heavy training [ 90 , 91 , 92 , 93 , 94 ].

For example, 0. Similarly, Montmorency cherry juice has also been shown to enhance recovery following prolonged, repeat sprint activity in semi-professional male soccer players [ 91 ]. In addition, mL of pomegranate juice has been shown to reduce DOMS after strenuous exercise [ 92 , 94 ].

However, these findings should be interpreted with some caution as participants were fasted and restricted polyphenol based foods beforehand. Theaflavin-enriched black tea extract supplementation in doses of mg daily for nine days has also been found to enhance recovery, reduce oxidative stress reduce muscle soreness in response to acute anaerobic intervals [ 96 ].

Thus, the potential beneficial effects of antioxidants and polyphenols to accelerate recovery are encouraging but more research is warranted using protocols which demonstrate greater ecological validity, especially in relation to soccer specific activity. Nevertheless, in situations where players have back-to-back matches with little time for recovery or in tournament situations where adaptation to training is likely not a key priority, certain antioxidant supplements and polyphenol-rich foods may be beneficial for recovery but chronic use should be avoided.

Omega-3 is found naturally in oily fish such as salmon, mackerel and sardines, and in a more concentration form as a fish oil supplement. Fish oil supplements contain the long chain polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid EPA and docosahexaenoic acid DHA.

It should be noted that the research on Omega-3 fatty acid supplements is conflicting as some studies show beneficial effects on reducing inflammation [ 97 ] and delayed onset muscle soreness [ 98 , 99 , ], whereas, other show no benefit [ , ].

Phillips and colleagues [ 97 ] found that fish oil supplementation reduced exercise-induced inflammation. Similarly, other studies have found that 1. In contrast, other studies have found a reduction in oxidative stress following exercise with fish oil supplementation but no difference in DOMS [ ] and further studies have no effect on DOMS [ ].

Despite the inconsistencies regarding fish oil supplementation, there does seem to be some evidence for using Omega-3 fatty acid supplementation in doses of 1. Fixture scheduling possibly provides the biggest challenge to recovery in elite soccer.

It is not unusual for top teams to have 3 games in a 10 day period in 3 different locations see Fig. The timing of kick offs in these games varies from week to week as a consequence of increased television coverage. For example, a team could play a home match at h on a Saturday, travel to Europe to play an away match on Wednesday night at h and return to play another away match at h on the subsequent Saturday.

It is these types of scenarios where recovery strategies take on extra significance. The selection of foods and timing of intake in and around travel are critical factors for optimal recovery. An example of recovery nutrition timeline after a match is shown in Fig.

Support staff cannot always rely on external catering thus some foods need to be portable to away games without compromising on quality and in these situations, teams could take their own chef who can work closely with the sport nutritionist to devise suitable menus.

Moreover, sleep deprivation will become an issue as a result of late games so timing of recovery nutrition to optimise sleep quality is of significance and this has been reviewed elsewhere [ ]. A timeline guide for optimum recovery after match with a kick of time of to promote glycogen re-synthesis and repair for an 80 kg player.

It is easy to formulate a recovery nutrition strategy on paper but implementing it effectively and attaining player adherence in the elite environment can prove a difficult proposition.

This is particularly imperative during a period of congested fixtures where recovery time between matches is limited. This will provide an additional food option during recovery without compromising on the quality of nutrients.

For players, it would also be beneficial to set up a recovery station and buffet style food selection in the changing room after the game which incorporates high-quality sources of carbohydrate and protein recovery snacks. This strategy will ensure that recovery nutrition is readily available after a game before they travel home.

Support staff may also want to consider an individualised approach to recovery nutrition based on player position. With modern technology such as Global Positioning System GPS and data obtained from match analysis such as total distance and high intensity distance covered, recovery strategies could be individualised.

For example, players working at higher intensities typically the full backs, and attacking midfielders would increase the amount of carbohydrate within the immediate recovery phase.

Whereas, the goalkeepers would follow lower carbohydrate diet in order to match the lower energy expenditures. The growing match play and training demands of a professional soccer player are putting a greater emphasis on the role of nutritional recovery in regaining performance and reducing the risk of injury.

Certain dietary practices should commence immediately after a competitive game or high intensity training session before the opportunity to fully optimise the recuperation process diminishes.

Carbohydrate replenishment should take precedence to replace the fuel lost to perform high intensity work with protein consumption playing an important role in muscle repair and rehydration aiding the overall recovery process.

Daily strategies incorporating these key nutrients should become common practice on subsequent recovery days between fixtures, especially during congestive weeks. Antioxidants and other nutrients can have a modulating role of the inflammatory process during these busy periods but their use needs be strategic rather than chronic to ensure adaptations to training are not blunted.

Current practical issues are ever present in an elite environment and need to be counteracted to achieve success in nutritional approach. Lago-Peñas C, Rey E, Lago-Ballesteros J, Casáis L, Domínguez E. The influence of a congested calendar on physical performance in elite soccer.

J Strength Cond Res. Article PubMed Google Scholar. Carling C, Le Gall F, Dupont G. Are physical performance and injury risk in a professional soccer team in match-play affected over a prolonged period of fixture congestion?

Int J Sports Med. Article CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Nedelec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G. Recovery in soccer: part I - post-match fatigue and time course of recovery.

Sports Med. PubMed Google Scholar. McCall A, Davison M, Andersen TE, Beasley I, Bizzini M, Dupont G, et al. Injury prevention strategies at the FIFA world cup: perceptions and practices of the physicians from the 32 participating national teams. Br J Sports Med.

Article PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar. Dupont G, Nedelec M, McCall A, McCormack D, Berthoin S, Wisloff U.

Effect of 2 soccer matches in a week on physical performance and injury rate. Am J Sports Med. Ekstrand J, Hagglund M, Walden M. Epidemiology of muscle injuries in professional football soccer.

Carling C, McCall A, Le Gall F, Dupont G. The impact of short periods of match congestion on injury risk and patterns in an elite football club. Mohr M, Draganidis D, Chatzinikolaou A, Barbero-Álvarez JC, Castagna C, Douroudos I, et al. Muscle damage, inflammatory, immune and performance responses to three football games in 1 week in competitive male players.

Eur J Appl Physiol. What is the extent of exposure to periods of match congestion in professional soccer players? J Sports Sci. Nédélec M, McCall A, Carling C, Legall F, Berthoin S, Dupont G. Recovery in soccer. Bangsbo J, Mohr M, Krustrup P.

Physical and metabolic demands of training and match-play in the elite football player. Mohr M, Krustrup P, Bangsbo J. Match performance of high-standard soccer players with special reference to development of fatigue. Russell M, Sparkes W, Northeast J, Kilduff LP.

Responses to a min reserve team soccer match: a case study focusing on the demands of extra time. Harper LD, West DJ, Stevenson E, Russell M. Technical performance reduces during the extra-time period of professional soccer match-play. PLoS One.

Osgnach C, Poser S, Bernardini R, Rinaldo R, Di Prampero PE. Energy cost and metabolic power in elite soccer: a new match analysis approach. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Rico-Sanz J, Frontera WR, Mole PA, Rivera MA, Rivera-Brown A, Meredith CN.

Dietary and performance assessment of elite soccer players during a period of intense training. Int J Sport Nutr. Ebine N, Rafamantanantsoa HH, Nayuki Y, Yamanaka K, Tashima K, Ono T, et al.

Measurement of total energy expenditure by the doubly labelled water method in professional soccer players. Anderson L, Orme P, Naughton RJ, Close GL, Milsom J, Rydings D, et al. Energy intake and expenditure of professional soccer players of the English premier league: evidence of carbohydrate periodization.

Int J Sport Nutr Exerc Metab. Briggs MA, Cockburn E, Rumbold PL, Rae G, Stevenson EJ, Russell M. Assessment of energy intake and energy expenditure of male adolescent academy-level soccer players during a competitive week. Article CAS PubMed PubMed Central Google Scholar.

Russell M, Pennock A. Dietary analysis of young professional soccer players for 1 week during the competitive season. Loucks AB, Kiens B, Wright HH. Energy availability in athletes. Ranchordas MK, Bannock L, Robinson SL.

Case Study: Nutritional and Lifestyle Support to Reduce Infection Incidence in an International-Standard Premier League Soccer Player. Bangsbo J. Energy demands in competitive soccer.

Saltin B. Metabolic fundamentals in exercise. Med Sci Sports. CAS PubMed Google Scholar. Gunnarsson TP, Bendiksen M, Bischoff R, Christensen PM, Lesivig B, Madsen K, et al.

Effect of whey protein- and carbohydrate-enriched diet on glycogen resynthesis during the first 48 h after a soccer game.

Scand J Med Sci Sports. Rampinini E, Bosio A, Ferraresi I, Petruolo A, Morelli A, Sassi A. Match-related fatigue in soccer players. Howatson G, Milak A. Exercise-induced muscle damage following a bout of sport specific repeated sprints.

Ivy JL, Katz AL, Cutler CL, Sherman WM, Coyle EF. Muscle glycogen synthesis after exercise: effect of time of carbohydrate ingestion. J Appl Physiol CAS Google Scholar. Burke LM, Kiens B, Ivy JL. Carbohydrates and fat for training and recovery. van Loon LJ, Kruijshoop M, Verhagen H, Saris WH, Wagenmakers AJ.

Ingestion of protein hydrolysate and amino acid-carbohydrate mixtures increases postexercise plasma insulin responses in men. J Nutr. Ivy JL, Goforth HW Jr, Damon BM, McCauley TR, Parsons EC, Price TB. Early postexercise muscle glycogen recovery is enhanced with a carbohydrate-protein supplement. Article CAS Google Scholar.

Kien B, Raben A, Valeur A, Richter E. Benefits of dietary simple carbohydrate on the early post exercise musle glycogen repletion. Med Scie Sport. Google Scholar. Jentjens R, Jeukendrup AE.

Determinants of post-exercise glycogen synthesis during short-term recovery. Burke LM, Collier GR, Hargreaves M.

Glycemic index—a new tool in sport nutrition? Muscle glycogen storage after prolonged exercise: effect of the glycemic index of carbohydrate feedings. Erith S, Williams C, Stevenson E, Chamberlain S, Crews P, Rushbury I. The effect of high carbohydrate meals with different glycemic indices on recovery of performance during prolonged intermittent high-intensity shuttle running.

Keizer HA, Kuipers H, van Kranenburg G, Geurten P. Influence of liquid and solid meals on muscle glycogen resynthesis, plasma fuel hormone response, and maximal physical working capacity.

Jeukendrup AE. Carbohydrate intake during exercise and performance. Jeukendrup A, Moseley L. Multiple transportable carbohydrates enhance gastric emptying and fluid delivery. Carbohydrate and exercise performance: the role of multiple transportable carbohydrates.

Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care. van Loon LJ. Application of protein or protein hydrolysates to improve postexercise recovery. Beck KL, Thomson JS, Swift RJ, von Hurst PR. Role of nutrition in performance enhancement and postexercise recovery.

Open Access J Sports Med. Pritchett K, Pritchett R. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports. Med Sport Sci. Saunders MJ. Carbohydrate-protein intake and recovery from endurance exercise: is chocolate milk the answer? Curr Sports Med Rep. Burke LM.

Fueling strategies to optimize performance: training high or training low? Nicholas CW, Green PA, Hawkins RD, Williams C. Carbohydrate intake and recovery of intermittent running capacity. Krustrup P, Ortenblad N, Nielsen J, Nybo L, Gunnarsson TP, Iaia FM, et al.

Maximal voluntary contraction force, SR function and glycogen resynthesis during the first 72 h after a high-level competitive soccer game.

Costill DL, Pascoe DD, Fink WJ, Robergs RA, Barr SI, Pearson D. Chocolate milk, a protein drink with a peanut butter and jelly sandwich, a turkey and cheese sandwich with pretzels, or even a protein bar with dry cereal are all good examples of post-race recovery nutrition options. Ideally you then also want to eat a full meal within hours of finishing the race.

It is important to remember that adequate protein and carbohydrate intake is just as important post-workout for plant-based endurance athletes. Rehydration needs to be a top priority after a hard race as athletes tend to replace only ½ or ¾ of their sweat losses through drinking during exercise. Ideally, you want to experiment with a sweat test to better understand your estimated sweat rate throughout training and racing.

This way, you know your fluid needs in different temperatures but in general, you want to aim for oz of fluid for every pound lost. Remember to take advantage of beverages that have calories, carbohydrates and electrolytes such as sports hydration beverages.

Also remember that thirst is not always a reliable indicator of fluid losses, in fact tends to be a very late predictor of fluid needs. Also, a liquid meal can take the place of solid nutrition if you are feeling any sort of stomach upset.

Though certainly review our tips for dealing with gastrointestinal distress if you are prone to this. Drinking cool water and fluids will help to lower core body temperature.

Electrolyte imbalances often occur after harder, prolonged bouts of exercise. This can result in unwanted side effects including chronic cramping, headaches, confusion, and even nausea and vomiting.

Endurance athletes can replenish their electrolytes in a few ways. Two of the most popular are electrolyte powders and sports drinks. Electrolyte powders are mixes that you can add straight to your water bottle. Some include all four electrolytes sodium, potassium, calcium and magnesium and others may only contain specific ones such as sodium.

Electrolyte replenishment is always important, but particularly important during the warm and humid summer months and also in very dry conditions such as at altitude.

Focus on well-balanced meals while enjoying a tasty treat or two! Fortunately, the healthy and balanced meal options are near endless with this one. Ideally you want to include a healthy balance of protein, fat and carbohydrates at each meal.

One of my favorite satisfying and balanced meals is pasta with homemade spaghetti sauce and an extra large side salad. In general, emphasize lean proteins such as poultry, fish, beef, eggs, dairy including Greek yogurt and cottage cheese, tofu, tempeh, and edamame.

Choose anti-inflammatory fats such as flaxseed, chia seed and walnuts. Research shows that regular consumption of omega-3s can help reduce inflammation from training and racing. Increased hunger is extremely common after longer, more intense bouts of endurance exercise including racing.

Honor your appetite and enjoy an extra snack to meet your recovery nutrition needs. Stuck in a snack rut? Reference our high-protein snack list for a few ideas! Magnesium can help to reduce muscle cramping and help improve sleep-quality. A simple strategy for increasing magnesium intake is by adding pumpkin seeds into your no-bake energy bites , which are a convenient on-the-run snack literally.

Or try nibbling on dried edamame mixed into an easy homemade snack mix. Slivered almonds or chia seeds are a great addition to an easy oatmeal bake. Even consider enjoying a small square of dark chocolate a personal favorite as an occasional post-dinner treat.

Journal of the International Society nutritionn Sports Nutrition volume stratebiesArticle number: 35 Cite this Elderberry syrup for flu. Metrics details. Specific guidelines Recofery aim to facilitate Strstegies recovery of butrition players Diabetic diet plans the demands of training and a congested Recovery nutrition strategies schedule are lacking; especially in relation to evidence-based nutritional recommendations. The importance of repeated high level performance and injury avoidance while addressing the challenges of fixture scheduling, travel to away venues, and training commitments requires a strategic and practically feasible method of implementing specific nutritional strategies. Here we present evidence-based guidelines regarding nutritional recovery strategies within the context of soccer. An emphasis is placed on providing practically applicable guidelines for facilitation of recovery when multiple matches are played within a short period of time i. Recovery nutrition strategies the recovery strategies, nutrition has a profound influence on Recovedy process Blood sugar crash and stress adequate availability of nutrients will allow not only the prompt replacement ztrategies energy High-Intensity Workouts also the correct Elderberry syrup for flu of the muscle to the nutrrition stimulus. Replenishing energy is especially important when multiple games are played in a week and recovering from one game becomes preparation for the next. In shrategies cases, a faster recovery would represent an important advantage. On the other hand, many of the adaptations that we are Rrcovery in promoting soccer performance occur within the muscle. New research supports that the organic response to protein synthesis after exercise can be accelerated by optimizing the quantity, timing and quality of protein intake after training and games.

Video

Easy and Effective Sports Nutrition Strategies for Performance and Recovery

Author: Voodoozuru

2 thoughts on “Recovery nutrition strategies

Leave a comment

Yours email will be published. Important fields a marked *

Design by ThemesDNA.com