Category: Diet

Protein and mood regulation

Protein and mood regulation

Amino acids, obtained through protein-rich rehulation, act as building blocks for antiviral immune support lozenges like regulahion, Protein and mood regulation, and norepinephrine, which Best drinks for exercise hydration key players in regulating regulatiob, emotions, and cognitive processes. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4. High sugar intake can have a number of adverse affects on all systems of your body, compromising both your physical and mental health. These findings suggest that the association between protein intake and depression might not be due to the change in the composition ratio of other macronutrients, as the protein increases or decreases.

Protein and mood regulation -

The animal protein category was defined as the sum of meat beef, lamb , poultry, fish, egg, and dairy. The plant protein category consisted of whole grains, refined grains, legumes, nuts and seeds, fruits, and vegetables. The amount of each food was converted to grams using household measures. FFQ-derived dietary data were used to calculate DII scores for all participants.

Shivappa et al. In the current study, we calculated DII scores based on 30 food parameters some of the nutrients listed in the above study were not available in our database which are as follows: energy, carbohydrate, protein, total fat, monounsaturated fat, polyunsaturated fat, saturated fat, omega-3, omega-6 fatty acids, cholesterol, fiber, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, vitamin B6, folic acid, vitamin B12, iron, magnesium, selenium, zinc, β carotene, vitamin A, C, D, E and tea, onion, caffeine, and garlic.

The psychological profile was assessed using a questionnaire of depression, anxiety, and stress scale DASS , the reliability of which was previously confirmed [ 22 ]. Each of the three DASS subscales consists of 7 questions, and the answers to which contained four options and were given a score of 0 never applied to me to 3 applied to me very much or most of the time.

The final score was obtained by totalizing the scores of each of the three sub-scales multiplied by two. However, for statistical analysis, subjects were classified into two categories normal and abnormal.

The Height was measured to the nearest 0. The weight was measured by a digital scale SECA, Hamburg, Germany. With an accuracy of 0. For the waist circumference WC , the narrowest abdominal circumference between the iliac crest and the rib cage was measured. Body mass index was calculated by dividing the weight kg by height squared m 2.

Activity level was ranked into four categories light, moderate, strong, and intense. General information, including age, marital status, smoking status, socioeconomic status SES , chronic diseases diabetes, cardiovascular disease, cancer, kidney or liver disorders , family history of chronic diseases, medication and supplement use, and menopausal status was obtained.

To examine the differences across tertiles, we used ANOVA for continuous variables and a Chi-square test for categorical variables.

Dietary intakes of study participants across animal and plant protein tertiles were compared using ANCOVA. All values were adjusted for energy intake.

To pin down the results solely to the effects of protein, we made a further adjustment for DII. All statistical analyses were done using the Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 21; SPSS Inc. The general characteristics of the study population across tertiles of plant and animal proteins are shown in Table 1.

The total mean and standard deviation SD of age, weight, BMI, and physical activity of participants was BMI and weight have shown significant differences among tertiles of plant and animal proteins. Also, participants with the highest adherence to plant protein were more physically active than those with low adherence.

The frequency and percentage of participants with depression, anxiety, and psychological distress were Dietary intakes of the study population among tertiles of plant and animal proteins are presented in Table 2.

Participants in the highest tertile of plant protein had a higher intake of whole grains, vegetables, energy, protein, carbohydrate, total fiber, vitamin A, thiamine, vitamin C, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron and lower intakes of total fat and vitamin B12 compared with those in the lowest tertile.

We did a further investigation to see if the tertiles overlap. Frequency analysis showed that only 5. Participants in the top tertile of animal protein consumed more dairy, meats, energy, protein, total fat, vitamin A, vitamin B12, calcium, magnesium, potassium, zinc, and iron and consumed a lower amount of fruits and dietary fiber.

Moreover, there was no significant difference in the consumption of Vitamin B6, fruits, dairy, legumes, and nuts across tertiles of plant protein and intakes of carbohydrate, Thiamine, Vitamin B6, Vitamin C, whole grains, vegetables, legumes, and nuts among animal protein tertiles.

After controlling for potential confounders comprising age, energy intake, physical activity, number of deliveries, socioeconomic status, supplemented use, marital status, educational level, BMI, and DII, the association between depression OR: 2.

lowest animal protein tertiles remained significant. The present study suggests that poultry and dairy products are the most important contributors to animal protein intake in a representative sample of the Iranian population.

While rice and legumes were the most important contributors to plant protein intake. Our findings indicated that a higher animal protein intake is associated with an increased risk of depression, anxiety, and stress in adult women.

However, there was no significant association between a high plant protein intake and the mentioned mental disorders. Mainstream medicine views mental disorders as a result of neurochemical imbalances, for instance, depression is often viewed as a serotonin imbalance, and new anti-depressants are prescribed to target the serotonin network [ 24 ].

Another primary neurotransmitter is GABA, a lack of which has been linked to anxiety. Thus many drugs that counter anxiety do so by stimulating GABA release [ 25 ]. Nutrition can play a vital role in the pathophysiology and management of psychiatric disorders by affecting the regulation of neurotransmitters.

Certain amino acids especially tryptophan, tyrosine, and phenylalanine found in high-quality protein sources are known to be the main precursors of these neurotransmitters [ 26 ].

It was also found that the rate of brain serotonin synthesis depends on the concentrations of tryptophan in the brain [ 27 ]. Rosier et al. revealed that a dietary intervention with low levels of phenylalanine and tyrosine would cause a rapid lowering of mood in patients who recovered from depression [ 28 ].

In this study, we found that consuming more animal protein is associated with an increased risk of psychiatric disorders. There is some evidence that could justify our findings. Tryptophan is the primary precursor of serotonin [ 29 ]. To enter the brain, a carrier protein must transport tryptophan through the blood-brain barrier.

However, tryptophan is in constant competition with six other amino acids isoleucine, leucine, phenylalanine, tyrosine, and valine to bind to the carrier [ 30 ]. Consuming rich protein sources provides the body with the mentioned amino acids in abundance, making it more arduous for tryptophan to pass through the barrier.

As a result, serotonin production might be reduced. Moreover, in a clinical trial study on 18 individuals who were divided into two groups, it was revealed that the group who consumed plant-based meals during the test had higher brain tryptophan and tyrosine levels than those who consumed meals high in animal sources [ 31 ].

Another explanation may involve the metabolism of homocysteine. Homocysteine is a byproduct of animal protein as it is converted from methionine, an amino acid found abundantly in red meat. Higher homocysteine levels are strongly associated with major psychiatric disorders [ 33 ]. It is suggested that elevated homocysteine levels could cause cerebral vascular disease and neurotransmitter deficiency [ 34 ].

It should be noted that several other factors could also promote diet-induced damage to mental health, including oxidative stress, insulin resistance, and inflammation [ 35 ].

They could be the inevitable outcomes of a long-term high intake of animal products that contain nutrients such as saturated fatty acid, arachidonic acid, heme iron, and cholesterol, which are known to cause inflammation [ 36 ].

Furthermore, excessive consumption of red meat was shown to alter gut microbiota composition [ 38 ], generating bioactive metabolites that could cause neuroinflammation through the gut-brain-axis [ 39 ].

Our findings were in general agreement with previous studies investigating the matter. A meta-analysis of 8 observational studies showed that meat consumption could be associated with a slightly higher risk of depression [ 40 ].

In a cross-sectional study conducted on Asian residents of the United States, a vegetarian diet which was characterized by no intake of meat, poultry, and fish was found to be inversely associated with the prevalence of depression [ 41 ].

furthermore, a cohort study conducted on participants found that the Mediterranean diet, which is rich in plant-based foods and low in red meat, had an inverse relation with depression [ 42 ].

The same conclusion was drawn in another large cohort study where the relationship between the dietary approach to hypertension DASH diet and depression was assessed [ 43 ]. A Japanese study found that plant protein was associated with decreased prevalence of depressive symptoms [ 44 ].

A clinical study by Beezhold et al. concluded that restricting animal-based foods such as meat, fish, and poultry improved short-term mood [ 45 ]. On the other hand, Li et al. reported that protein intake from milk and milk products was inversely associated with depressive symptoms [ 46 ].

They suggested that a-lactalbumin, a whey-derived protein that is a rich source of tryptophan, could exert beneficial effects on mood and cognition. The present study could further expand our knowledge regarding the association of the protein with mental well-being.

Still, some limitations should be noted. First, the recall bias in reporting dietary intake has probably affected the results. The cross-sectional nature of our study was another limitation, as it prevented us from inferring causality.

The study was performed only on females aged 20—50 years, which affects the generalizability to the larger population. Also, due to the different influence of gonadal steroids on mood [ 47 ], we could have gotten better insight into the variable of sex if men had also been present.

Furthermore, it has been reported that the menstrual cycle could affect depressive symptoms, which were not regarded in our study [ 48 ]. Also, the DASS is a self-reported scale based on a dimensional rather than a categorical conception of mental disorder.

This scale is used to measure the severity of symptoms of anxiety, stress, and depression and is helpful for screening, not for diagnosis. In conclusion, we found that high adherence to animal protein is associated with an elevated risk of psychiatric disorders.

Future longitudinal studies are required to further our understanding of the effect of different protein sources on mental health. Leila Azadbakht.

However, restrictions apply to the availability of these data as they contain the personal information of the participants.

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Psychosom Med. If you are experiencing symptoms of anxiety, irritability, ADHD, or mood swings, then balancing your blood sugar is essential.

Blood sugar swings, both high and low, can cause any of these symptoms. The best way to balance your blood sugar is through diet. You want to combine protein, fat, complex carbs, and fiber at EVERY meal. This is where we circle back to the importance of carbohydrates.

Complex carbs such as whole grain bread, brown rice, quinoa, and oats just to name a few take longer to digest, and therefore turn to sugar, in your bodies.

This helps to prevent your blood sugar from rising too quickly. Eating these with protein, fats, and fiber also help slow the release of sugars into your bloodstream, allowing your levels and your mood to stay at a more stable level.

Protein is especially important for this purpose. The slower they turn into sugar what becomes your energy , the more stable your blood sugar levels will stay.

You also want to eat regularly to avoid your blood sugar from dropping too low. Aim for 3 meals and 2 snacks each day spaced out into hour intervals or small meals. Your mental health is so much more than just your emotions. In fact, your emotions are impacted by a host of factors, and diet is one of them.

While there are so many ways that your diet and lifestyle impact your mental health, starting with these basics can be truly life changing.

This includes diet, sleep, exercise, relationships, stress, and so much more. Your email address will not be published. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. For therapy tools, self care Tips, and Self Help Strategies.

A study Protein and mood regulation Switzerland found rebulation adolescent athletes Fat intake and trans fats consumed more protein in anr diets had lower levels of depressive symptoms. Progein food we eat is comprised of different moov. These include Protrin macronutrients Best drinks for exercise hydration as carbohydrates, proteins and fats, but also micronutrients such as vitamins and minerals. Macronutrients are nutrients that humans need a lot of, while micronutrients are needed in relatively small amounts. Both types of nutrients are essential for our health and well-being. Appropriate intake of both macro- and micronutrients is related to our cognitive performance, mood, and mental health. Studies have shown that people with mental health issues often make poor food choices.

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